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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Capture a web page as it appears now for use as a trusted citation in the future. Better World Books. Uploaded by station Search icon An illustration of a magnifying glass. User icon An illustration of a person's head and chest.

Sign up Log in. Web icon An illustration of a computer application window Wayback Machine Texts icon An illustration of an open book. Books Video icon An illustration of two cells of a film strip. Video Audio icon An illustration of an audio speaker. Audio Software icon An illustration of a 3. Software Images icon An illustration of two photographs. It requires that states develop plans to achieve the goal that all teachers of core academic subjects be highly qualified.

Many are using point systems that allow teachers to count a combination of years of successful classroom experience, participation in high-quality professional development that evaluates what the teacher has learned, service on curriculum development teams, and other activities related to developing knowledge in an academic area.

The situation appears not to have changed very much in the intervening years. For example, the Education Trust has criticized the federal government for doing little to ensure that teachers in urban schools are becoming truly qualified to raise the achievement of low-income students and minority students. Observers also point out that many rural districts face insuperable difficulties in meeting NCLB requirements for highly qualified teachers. By , more than 95 percent of teachers were highly qualified, as classified by the standards in their states.

In addition, most analysts believe that major problems still generally exist with respect to providing highly qualified teachers in high-poverty urban districts and in certain teaching areas such as special education and instruction for English language learners. And, as described next, states and the federal government are participating in the Excellent Educators for All. Mary M. They also knew that well over 90 percent of teachers in most districts were assessed as satisfactory, even if their students were failing miserably.

Seeking funding from RTTT and spurred by the desire to obtain NCLB waivers see the waiver discussion later in this section as well as public demands for better student performance and international research emphasizing the importance of effective teachers, most state governments have moved to carry out the teacher quality activities specified earlier. In many states, teacher evaluations now are based on increasingly rigorous, frequent, and sophisticated observation of classroom teaching, with additional meaningful support provided for low-scoring teachers.

For the minority of. They also point out that in many or most districts, teachers are still categorized in terms allowing only for either satisfactory or unsatisfactory, with only a small number placed in the unsatisfactory category.

However, some of the goals and policies that characterized RTTT may well be pursued by the federal government and state governments in the future. Thus, more than forty states now require that teachers be evaluated at least partly in terms of data on their performance. The CAEP is now the sole national accreditor of teacher-education programs. It has introduced new standards requiring that teacher-training programs have students with a collective grade point average of at least 3.

Matthew P. However, states will not be required to publish report cards with such information until Which of the reforms do you think might cause teachers dissatisfaction or stress? Governments at all levels are acting to improve teacher recruitment and preparation, working conditions, and professional responsibility. Individuals dedicated to helping young people learn and grow in school should have considerable opportunities to realize their ambitions.

In years to come, the teaching profession should continue to experience a renewed excitement and an even greater sense that the work is of vital importance to American society. Efforts have been inaugurated to improve the recruitment and preparation of future teachers, their opportunities for learning from capable mentors, and their chances for obtaining a rewarding and stable professional position.

No one can say for sure how these developments will affect each individual candidate for a teaching certificate.

For some, improved opportunities will be increasingly evident; for others, major hurdles and even disappointments will have to be overcome. For example, many new teachers will find exciting jobs at improving urban schools, innovative schools with advanced technology, or schools with collaborative staff who provide excellent advice and assistance.

Many others will encounter difficult circumstances such as decreased financial aid at their college or university, problems involving the accreditation of their home institutions, or declining reputations and resources at the school districts that hire them. We hope that your experience turns out to be overwhelmingly positive. Summing Up 1. Although we see many reasons for entering the teaching profession, research indicates that most teachers do so to help young children and to provide a service to society.

Many educators are focusing on ways to increase diversity in the teaching workforce to better reflect the student population. Demand for new teachers will likely continue. Teacher salaries have improved in recent years. Requirements for teacher certification or licensure vary from state to state and among institutions of higher learning.

Trends in teacher education include a growing emphasis on developing reflective teachers. Teachers also are increasingly prepared to use up-to-date technology, to work with students who have special needs, and to teach in widely diverse settings. Although admitting that it is not possible to generalize about the myriad teacher-preparation programs, several major reports have concluded that many programs are not doing an adequate job in training future teachers.

Most teachers are satisfied with most aspects of their jobs, despite some dissatisfaction with starting salaries and certain other aspects of the profession. Concern is widespread over the quality of the teaching workforce and teacher preparation. Significant reports and legislation dealing with student performance have helped generate a variety of efforts and programs to improve teacher quality and functioning.

The federal government maintains various sites on the Internet. Many topics in this chapter and in this book can be explored at the US Department of Education website and the Institute of Education Sciences website.

Various professional organizations, such as the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development and Phi Delta Kappa also sponsor relevant sites.

Updated reports and developments regarding topics in this chapter are described in The Hechinger Report website. The Teacher Quality Bulletin newsletter is a publication available by e-mail or online from the Teacher Quality Clearinghouse.

Goldstein, Dana. The Teacher Wars. New York: Doubleday, Herndon, Joseph. The Way It Spozed to Be. New York: Bantam, A classic when it was published, this book, which describes the satisfactions and difficulties of teaching in the inner city, remains relevant in the new millennium.

Journal of Teacher Education. American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. Regularly provides information and analysis regarding important issues in preservice and inservice education.

Learning Objectives Explain how teaching lags behind full-fledged professions in the four areas highlighted in this section. Until the twentieth century, teachers received relatively little preparation and had little say in the terms of their employment. Unorganized and isolated from one another in small schools and districts, teachers could be summarily dismissed by a local board of education.

Many were told they could not teach material that a community member might find objectionable. Times have changed. Today, teachers strive to be professionals with expert knowledge concerning instruction, content, and assessment in their particular fields.

In addition, most belong to teacher organizations and have gained greater rights to be judged on their classroom performance rather than on their behavior outside school.

In schools today, they are likely to participate in decision making about work conditions. In many cases, they are forging stronger links with school administrators, university researchers, government officials, and the communities they serve. The first part of this chapter describes ways in which teachers are striving for full professional status, and the second part discusses the teacher organizations that have grown in power and prominence.

The question of whether or not teaching is a true profession has been debated for decades. Some have tried to identify the ideal characteristics of professions, and by rating teachers on these items, determine whether teaching is a profession. The following are characteristics of a full profession, based on the works of noted authorities during the latter half of the twentieth century. A sense of public service; a lifetime commitment to career 2.

A defined body of knowledge and skills beyond that grasped by laypeople 3. A lengthy period of specialized training 4. Autonomy in making decisions about selected spheres of work 6. An acceptance of responsibility for judgments made and acts performed related to services rendered; a set of performance standards. A self-governing organization composed of members of the profession 8. A code of ethics that signals an overriding commitment to the welfare of the client Several sociologists contend that nursing and social work, like teaching, are also semi-professions.

Howsam et al. Cawelti, ed. Ballantine and Joan Z. Spade, eds. In the following sections, we explore these four aspects of teaching. Members of the profession establish their expertise by mastering this defined body of knowledge, and they protect the public from untrained amateurs by denying membership to those who have not mastered it. As a result, too many people, especially the public and politicians, talk about education as if they were experts�the cause of many conflicting and sometimes negative conversations.

Some detractors even claim that teaching skills are innate rather than learned. Almost all educators agree that preparing good teachers rests on these three components. Arguments arise, however, over the relative emphasis that each component should receive. How much course work, for example, should the education program require from liberal-education courses versus specialized subject field courses and professional education courses?

Viewpoints also differ concerning the extent to which clinical experience, which involves actual practice in school settings, should be incorporated in professional education programs. Thus, teacher-education programs may differ among various colleges and universities.

Critics today. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman-Nemser, and J. McIntyre, eds. Handbook of Research on Teacher Education, 3rd ed. The national accrediting body for educator preparation programs that utilizes peer review and evidence-based accreditation. The Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation CAEP has adopted standards that determine which teacher-education programs comply with national standards in the preparation of teaching candidates and specialists about to enter the classroom.

Furthermore, over the past quarter of a century, National Board Certification has been implemented through the independent National Board for Professional Teaching Standards NBPTS for the purpose of awarding additional teaching certification to master teachers beyond initial state certification. You might want to research the qualifications and testing required for certification in your state to compare with others nearby.

If teacher certification is to verify professional skills and knowledge, it is unfortunate that some reports suggest a significant number of secondary-school teachers appear to be teaching out of license�in other words, outside their certified areas of expertise.

This is a problem in the core academic subjects�English, social studies,. The problem is more pronounced in high-poverty high schools, where 5. This process�by which teachers are recruited from the ranks of experienced college graduates seeking second careers�is intended to be an expedited route to eliminate teacher shortages in certain subject areas such as mathematics, science, and special education or to upgrade the quality of new teachers.

In most such programs, participants are placed directly in classrooms without prior field experiences or internships. In a report, it was noted that 11 percent of all prospective teachers were enrolled in alternative programs. Most teacher-preparation organizations, on the other hand, see alternative certification as a threat to the profession. New research suggests that new teachers who have little training in pedagogical skills have attrition rates that are higher than traditionally certified teachers.

However, teacher organizations are lobbying state legislatures, departments of education, professional practice boards, and independent organizations to implement rigorous licensure standards for entry into the teaching profession.

The more input teachers have�that is, the more control they exercise over their own licensing procedures�the more teaching will be recognized as a full profession. Professionals usually establish rules and customs that give them exclusive jurisdiction over their area of competence and their relationships with clients; professional autonomy is characterized by a high degree of self-determination.

Daniel C. Humphrey and Marjorie E. What are the effects of teacher education and preparation on beginning teacher attrition? Research Report RR Teachers, in contrast, have traditionally had little input in critical decision making regarding many aspects of their working conditions. Such decisions include the topics to be covered in the curriculum or the textbooks selected for courses they teach.

Most often, school reform initiatives come from government officials, philanthropists, business leaders, and special interest groups rather than from teachers.

Occupational prestige refers to the esteem a particular society bestows on an occupation. Do you consider teaching a high-prestige occupation? Occupations rate high in prestige if they are generally perceived as making an especially valuable contribution to society. Occupations that require a high level of education or skill and little manual or physical labor also tend to be prestigious.

On these aspects of social status, the job of elementary or secondary teacher historically has ranked relatively high. In these studies of more than occupations, the highest average score for a major occupation was 82 for physicians and surgeons, and the lowest was 9 for shoe shiners.

Elementary-school teachers were rated at 60, and secondary-school teachers at 63�both above the ninetieth percentile. It is interesting to note that teaching has dropped five places on the ranking since the poll was published in Another reason for the continued favorable rating might be the complex nature of teaching.

Teaching, more complex than 75 percent of all other occupations, ranked quite high in prestige. To be a teacher, you must be highly proficient in language. Celine Coggins and P. North and Paul K. Hodge, Paul M. Siegel, and Peter H. Additional studies remind us that the work of teachers is multidimensional. However, society accords higher prestige and, of course, higher pay to professionals such as physicians, lawyers, and engineers, mainly because they must deal with information generally regarded as more abstract complex and because these fields currently require more rigorous academic preparation and licensure.

Allegretto, Sean P. Allegretto, Teacher Pay Penalty November 20, at www. Is it important to you that teaching seems to lag behind other professions in these areas? Why or why not? Secretary of Education Arne Duncan indicated that society should look at teaching as it does the professions of law, medicine, and engineering.

Unfortunately, the gains of the past two decades of the twentieth century have not been sustained during the first decade and a half of the twenty-first. Although teaching, as we have seen, may not yet be considered fully professionalized, certain trends have helped it move in that direction. In as many as thirtyfour states and Washington, DC, school districts are legally required to bargain with teachers, while in eleven states, collective bargaining is permissible.

Five states prohibit teachers from collective bargaining by statute. The extent and nature of collective bargaining varies from negotiations conducted in the absence of a law allowing or forbidding it, to full-scale contract bargaining backed by the right to strike. In some ways, collective bargaining may be considered a nonprofessional or even antiprofessional activity.

In law, medicine, or the ministry, for example, few professionals work in organizations in which collective bargaining determines employment terms. Collective bargaining, however, can significantly improve teaching professionalism by giving teachers greater authority to influence their work conditions and their effectiveness as teachers in the classroom. Wisconsin, Idaho, Tennessee, Indiana, and Washington, DC are among the jurisdictions that have had legislation introduced to limit the scope of.

Hirsch, David A. Macpherson, and Jon V. Teacher evaluation, salary schedules, layoffs, and tenure are but a few of the issues that some state lawmakers and governors have included in bargaining prohibitions. Continuing in this vein, collective bargaining can reduce resistance to various reform efforts, thus resolving conflicts between school boards and teachers and potentially raising the overall status of the profession.

Today, a majority of states have professional standards boards that regulate the education profession, but they vary in the powers they possess. Among their responsibilities may be the authority to issue, renew, suspend, and revoke certificates for teachers and administrators. Today, many educators see the NBPTS as a professional board implementing meaningful standards that lead to the awarding of advanced teacher certification that goes beyond state certification.

Both major teacher organization presidents sit on the NBPTS board of directors, and a majority of the board members are from the teaching profession. Mediated entry refers to the practice of inducting people into a profession through carefully supervised stages that help them learn how to apply professional knowledge successfully in working environments. For example, aspiring physicians serve one.

Donn, Rache E. Donn, Loyd Goldberg, and Brenda J. For example, secretarial knowledge and skills are significantly less demanding than those of a medical doctor.

They also report that the beginning years of teaching can be a period of anxiety, frustration, and fear�even of trauma. Perhaps as a result, teaching has a higher attrition rate than other professions. In recent years, more colleges and universities have been using professional development schools PDSs as clinical settings where aspiring teachers gain more extended and intensive classroom experiences before beginning their student teaching internships.

This multisemester approach�in actual classrooms, under the guidance of experienced teachers and university professors�provides a more methodical induction into the teaching profession.

Thus, there is better retention of new teachers as they begin their careers. As a result of this realization, the number of beginning teachers participating in induction programs has increased from 50 percent in to 91 percent in , and, while thirtythree states have induction policies, twenty-two states and numerous local school districts fund more systematic efforts to transition into the profession.

Comprehensive programs that include mentoring by experienced teachers, shared planning time, new teacher seminars, and extra classroom assistance are more likely to lead to increased teacher learning and thus better retention and increased student learning. Dan C. Richard M. Latham and W. Your teacher training does not end when you begin teaching full time. Teaching demands rigorous and continuous training, which is often referred to as professional development. To stay up to date in their preparation and to acquire new classroom skills, teachers are expected to participate in various forms of workshops, local or national conferences, college courses, or online courses.

A number of recent studies examining professional development trends in the United States conclude that teachers find value in professional development that incorporates active learning, collaborative problem solving, and communities of practice tied to school improvement efforts. These findings coincide with international comparisons of professional-development efforts in top-performing industrialized nations and the United States.

In the countries that perform well on international achievement tests, teachers spend significantly more time collaborating on ways of improving classroom instruction than teachers in the United States. Teachers are using this research to make the case for more sustained, cohesive professional-development training. Teachers are encouraged to collaborate with colleagues in taking the courses to develop a community of learners.

New varieties of professional development programs are giving teachers a major voice in decisions that affect their professional careers. These programs also help to establish the concept that teaching, like other full-fledged professions, requires lengthy and ongoing training.

When students make academic gains, the teacher is rewarded. Proponents contend. Technology School Professional Development Opportunities on the Internet Whether you are preparing to teach, you are experiencing your first year in the classroom, or you are a veteran teacher, professional growth and development are critical to your teaching success.

The Internet provides a rich array of technology resources for novice and veteran teachers to assist in their development as effective classroom teachers. New teachers especially need assistance with job search information.

Beginning and veteran teachers can find Internet resources in just about any subject area at a variety of websites, and each. Scholastic Inc. Although thousands of sites address the professionaldevelopment needs of educators, a few are typical of the comprehensive reach these sites have. The New Teacher Survival Guide website includes information on using cutting-edge technology and provides access to new teacher blogs. PBS LearningMedia provides links to standards-based curriculum resources as well as professional-development activities.

Education World includes pages on technology integration and lifestyle issues. Teachers and their professional organizations feel more comfortable with multiple factors comprising their evaluations, including observations, contributions outside of the classroom, and professional learning activities.

Where merit plans have been implemented, according to some reports, teachers have often believed that the wrong people were selected for preferential pay. Some observers fear that such rewards go to relatively few teachers at the expense of many others and threaten unity and collegiality among educators.

Gene V. Glass and David C. Ritter and Nathan C. Taking Issue Read the following brief introduction, as well as the Question and the pros and cons list that follows. Then, answer the question using your own words and position. Merit Pay Traditionally, teachers have earned salaries based on their years in teaching and their highest degree obtained.

Recent alternative pay plans, however, offer rewards to teachers considered above average in teaching skills or increasing student achievement as measured on achievement tests. Teachers whose students consistently score high on assessments must be outstanding teachers. Such teachers merit extra compensation for their work. If such statistical evidence exists, teachers should be rewarded for positive student performance. At this time, pay-for-performance plans only reward teachers in the core subject areas because that is what is currently being assessed.

Hard work can perhaps be measured, but many creative activities do not necessarily correlate with good teaching. Performance-pay programs encourage teachers to focus on teaching the established curriculum because that is what the assessments are designed to measure.

This ensures that students throughout the district are learning the same information and skills. If student results on mandated assessments are the primary evidence of performance, teachers will only teach to the test, thus narrowing the educational experience for students.

Without opportunities to earn performance pay, capable and ambitious people will choose incentive-producing careers such as business; thus, the best candidates will not be attracted to teaching, and high-quality teachers will be inclined to leave teaching.

Businesses can offset extensive merit pay rewards by raising prices, but schools must rely on taxes. Taxpayers often will not or cannot support financial incentives significant enough to support a fair merit-pay system. Merit pay promotes excellence in teaching by acting as an incentive for teachers to improve their performance. Each teacher is encouraged to develop better teaching behaviors to increase student performance. Business and most other professions offer such motivators, so why not teaching?

Incentive pay, by definition, goes to only a few. Such a plan penalizes equally qualified teachers who miss out for lack of enough positions. Moreover, competition for merit pay pits one teacher against another, encourages political games, and destroys the collegial cooperation essential to good education.

Question Reprise: What is Your Stand? Reflect again on the following question by explaining your stand about this issue: Should individual teachers receive special pay increases based on merit or performance?

Even as arguments continue, performance-pay plans are being implemented in school districts across the United States. The Obama administration is supporting these efforts through its requirement under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act ESEA that state education agencies implement teacher and principal evaluation and support systems that use multiple measures of performance, including student growth.

As of , forty-one states included student achievement in their teacher evaluation process. Will you look for a position in a school that has a strong induction program for new teachers? Would you prefer a mediated-entry program similar to that in the medical profession, with intern and resident teacher levels, before you become a full-fledged professional teacher? How can you prepare yourself to effectively carry out the shared responsibilities of PLCs? PLCs use available school and district assessment data and student work to analyze results and establish goals for student progress.

Collectively, they identify instructional strategies and best practices to incorporate into instruction in a systematic effort to enhance student achievement. Dufour, a leading expert on PLCs, contends that most professions require such collaboration with colleagues, and PLCs provide a platform where teachers can collaborate in a coordinated and systematic effort to support the students they serve.

Teachers must be willing to take responsibility for directing their own behavior and invest the extra time necessary for an effective, collaborative PLC.

Critics contend that PLCs actually challenge teacher autonomy and the traditional culture of schools by requiring collaboration with others. From this perspective, teachers should be able to act on their own with regard to what works in the classroom to improve student achievement. An inordinate amount of time, they say, is devoted to analyzing data, discussing remedies, and experimenting with instructional strategies.

April at www. Thessin and Joshua P. The data indicated that test scores for the sixth and eighth graders were up in math and reading, while there was a slight dip in the scores of seventh graders on both assessments. As a new teacher, Anna knew the results were important but was unsure what she and her colleagues would do next. During the ensuing weeks, Anna discovered the impact the scores would have on her school.

At each grade level, she was aware that groups of teachers were organized into three PLCs. Each PLC was comprised of content teachers representing a given grade level. Members of the PLCs, teachers who took on the role of team leaders, and school administrators received extensive training in how to work effectively in such a collective endeavor. One of the discoveries they made as they analyzed the data was that there had to be a realignment of literacy and math instructional objectives with the new curriculum based on the Common Core State Standards, especially at the seventh grade level.

After they were satisfied that the objectives were properly aligned with the assessment, they began work on improving the instructional plan to meet the needs of individual learners. The PLCs investigated strategies designed to engage middle-level learners through a literature review and consultations with a local university professor who was affiliated with the professional-development school network.

Their research and investigation led them to conclude that literacy and math skills at all three grade levels needed to be incorporated into an interdisciplinary approach to reinforce the state curriculum standards.

They were able to implement the use of multiple texts and collaborative learning strategies to differentiate instruction to meet the needs of all students. Convinced they were on the right track to enhance student learning, the PLCs systematically monitored the reforms to determine if they would yield the desired results. Anna was impressed with the efforts of the PLCs. She was proud of the way her fellow teachers and administrators collaborated to improve the educational environment of her school.

She is looking forward to the possibility of becoming a member of the professional learning team so she can take a more active role in making a difference for all students in her school. How does the concept of the PLC support the position that teaching is a profession? Why might some teachers object to serving on a PLC?

Overview 2. Although some educators believe this division produces healthy professional competition, others consider it detrimental to the teaching profession�a splitting of power and a waste of resources.

Still others argue that teachers will not attain full professional status until one unified voice speaks for them. Both organizations have been active in recent years in challenging the critics, state legislators, and governors who have called for reforms that limit or eliminate teacher tenure, repeal collective bargaining, and implement evaluation systems that publicly rate teachers and schools as passing or failing. They are also working to assist members in the classroom with effective practices for implementing the Common Core State Standards and to help them with the accompanying assessments.

Organizational membership will increase your own professionalism and gain you collegial relationships. Your support also helps to improve salary, working conditions, and benefits for many teachers. In addition, reading the journals, magazines, or newsletters that most professional organizations publish, as well as visiting their websites, will keep you abreast of the latest developments in the field.

See the Suggested Resources section at the end of this chapter for resources provided by each organization. The NEA includes teachers, education support professionals, higher education faculty and staff, and administrators at the national level. As shown in Table 2. Its fifty state affiliates, along with more than 14, local affiliates, are among the most. Individual benefits include savings on optional insurance programs, financial services, and member discounts on various services.

It also publishes research memos and opinion surveys on an annual basis. There is also a daily e-newsletter, neaToday. The AFT was originally open only to classroom teachers. In , however, to increase membership, the AFT targeted professional employees such as higher-education faculty, nurses, health-care professionals, government employees, and school-related personnel such as paraprofessionals and cafeteria, custodial, maintenance, and transportation workers.

Membership in stood at just over 1. Members have access to resources on the AFT website that are designed to enhance classroom teaching and learning. The AFT also provides individual benefits to members similar to those of the NEA, such as access to legal services and insurance programs. Unlike the NEA, the AFT has always required its members to join the local 3, affiliates , state, and national organizations simultaneously.

Subsequently, the AFT became the dominant teacher organization in many large urban centers where unions have traditionally flourished, where militant tactics were common, and where teachers in general have wanted a powerful organization to represent them. In rural and suburban areas, where union tactics have received less support, the NEA remains dominant. See www. In the following sections, we describe some of the basic types of organizations that could be helpful to a new teacher.

A subject-centered professional association provides a meeting ground for teachers who share similar interests. These professional organizations customarily provide regional and national meetings and professional journals that offer current teaching tips, enumerate current issues in the discipline, and summarize current research and its relationship to practice. The first column of Overview 2. Other organizations, also national in scope, focus on the needs and rights of particular kinds of students, ensuring that these children and youth are served by wellprepared school personnel.

Several such organizations are listed in the second column of Overview 2. These associations hold regional and national meetings and publish monthly or quarterly journals. Still another type of organization is the professional organization whose members cut across various subjects and student types, such as the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development ASCD and Phi Delta Kappa PDK , also listed in the second column of Overview 2.

CHAPTER 2: The Teaching Profession teaching practices, describe new trends and policies affecting the entire field of education, have a wide range of membership, and work to advance the teaching profession in general. It currently comprises more than 4, lay teachers, mainly from large cities in the eastern United States.

Most members are administrators who serve as principals, supervisors, or superintendents of their respective schools. It is estimated that currently more than 1. By comparison, , students attend Jewish-affiliated schools, and , students attend schools affiliated with the Baptist religion.

Parent-teacher groups provide forums for parents and teachers to work together in creating positive learning environments in schools across the nation. As a teacher, you can take an active part in these associations and work with parents on curriculum and instructional programs, student policy, and school-community relations. Founded in , the Parent-Teacher Association PTA �the most prominent of the groups�is a loose confederation of fifty-five state congresses and more than 20, local units in the fifty states and the territories, with approximately 5 million members in Every PTA unit devises its own pattern of organization and service to fit its school and neighborhood.

PTA membership is open to anyone interested in promoting the welfare of children and youth, working with teachers and schools, and supporting PTA goals. Broughman and Nancy L. Professional association for career educators; research; service, leadership, and teaching; issues, trends, and policies. Sources: www. Which might be useful to join later in your career?

Students considering teaching careers may also join professional organizations. These organizations can help you answer questions; investigate the profession; form ideals of professional ethics, standards, and training; meet other students and educators at local and national meetings; and keep up with current trends in the profession.

Ask your professors for appropriate information if you are interested in joining any of these organizations. Most of the professional organizations offer discounted student membership rates. Search the Internet for any of the organizations listed to find out more about becoming a member.

It is generally agreed that teaching, although not yet a full profession, is moving toward becoming one. Collective bargaining is an integral part of the teaching profession, giving teachers greater authority to determine working conditions and their effectiveness as teachers. Many education trends are raising the level of teacher professionalism.

State professional practice boards and National Board Certification, for example, enable teachers to participate in setting criteria for entering the profession. Induction and professional development programs help establish the idea that teaching is a full-fledged profession requiring lengthy and continued training.

Professional Learning. Communities PLCs provide opportunities for increased salaries and more professional responsibilities designed to enhance student learning. Many professional organizations are open to undergraduate students or to graduate students and teachers.

All provide valuable information and services to educators at different career levels. Suggested Resources Internet Resources Information about many of the organizations discussed in this chapter can be found on the Internet. In exploring specific topics such as professional development and educational technology, there are many good sites to visit first.

For professional development, try the Learning Forward website. Publications Conant, James B. The Education of American Teachers. New York: McGraw-Hill, A classic text on improving teacher education and teacher professionalism. Darling-Hammond, Linda, and John Bransford, eds. Drury, Darrel, and Justin Baer. Boston: Harvard Education Press, Reflects on the NEA surveys that are conducted every five years. A comprehensive look at the history of the teaching profession; covers many of the topics in this chapter.

Grimmett, Peter P. Young, and Claude Lessard. Focuses on teacher certification and questions about who will teach, the required minimum levels of competence, and who will make those decisions. Hannaway, Jane, and Andrew Rotherham. Boston: Harvard Educational Publications Group, A wellwritten and fair look at the collective bargaining process and its impact on educational change.

Hess, Frederick, M. McShane, eds. Teacher Quality 2. Examines innovations taking place in various education settings that promise to improve teacher quality. Kahlenberg, Richard D. New York: Columbia University Press, Lieberman, Ann, and Lynne Miller, eds.

New York: Teachers College Press, Professional communities as an approach to professional development are described, and recommendations are made for incorporating them into the school setting. Moe, Terry M. Examines teacher unions and their influence on public schools from a conservative perspective. Skinner, Elizabeth A. Examines the school reform movement in Chicago, especially teacher-preparation efforts.

Education is about what was the past , what is the present , and what might be the future. In meeting their immediate, daily classroom challenges, teachers understandably tend to focus on the present. Professional standards and teacher-education programs ask teachers to reflect on their practices.

Reflection, arising in the present, illuminated by the past, can aid us to envision a better future for our students, our country, and, maybe, the world. Have you experienced an oral tradition in your own education? Human history began in the Paleolithic period the Old Stone Age in 10, BCE when small nomadic bands of people searched for food, such as edible fruits, plants, and roots, or hunted for birds, fish, and animals. Organized into simple kinship clans or tribes, preliterate people lived with the ever-present fear they might not survive.

The natural environment that nourished them also threatened them. Their source of food might disappear with storms, floods, earthquakes, or droughts. Between their treks for food, they sheltered in caves or in simple dwellings fashioned from branches or animal skins. They improvised tools�clubs, spears, or pointed digging sticks. Importantly, they learned to make and use fire. By trial and error, they developed survival skills that over time became cultural patterns.

From their fathers and older men, boys learned to hunt, fish, and defend the group from enemies. From their mothers and older women, girls learned to find and prepare food and sew garments. Gender patterns that designated some activities as specifically appropriate for males and others for females had a staying power in education that persisted into the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Lacking writing to record their histories, preliterate societies relied on oral tradition� storytelling�to transmit their heritage. Storytelling continues to be an engaging teaching strategy today, especially in preschools and primary grades. To make life more secure, the early humans made a momentous transition as they went from hunting to growing food.

Now farmers, people needed to plan their activities around the seasons of the year�to times for sowing seeds, cultivating plants, and harvesting crops. The plotting of these seasons led to the calendar. Thus, a new objective was added to education: developing and using a sense of time. Because farmers lived where they raised their crops, nomadic life yielded to living in settlements, and then to small and later larger villages. Good farming practices generated. You can reflect on and draw insights from your educational experiences, as a student and teacher.

Another boy was dressed as Abraham Lincoln. As a historian of education, the performance led me to reflect on its educational and cultural meaning. The large flag, the songs, and the costumes all built a sense of American identity in the children. The proverbial but most likely mythical story of George Washington and the cherry tree reinforced the values of honesty and truthfulness. I thought about how significant adults, such as the music director and the teachers, had planned and orchestrated the program.

I am sure that many of you have either participated in or observed a program like the one I described. How does this contemporary school performance resemble the oral tradition in preliterate societies? How do educational episodes, like the one just described, relate to cultural identity and cultural diversity? Reflect on similar school programs in your own education, and relate them to how you think about the history of education.

As language users, humans created pictographs and then developed symbols from the pictographs that represented people, animals, and natural phenomena. A literate society required schools, places where children learned to read and write.

Their use of an oral tradition that featured songs, stories, and drama continues to have a place in contemporary education. For a historical perspective on the development of literacy and schooling, we look at three great ancient cultures: the Chinese, the Egyptians, and the Hebrews.

The Chinese empire�which achieved high pinnacles of political, social, and educational development�spanned more than forty centuries, from BCE to CE. With more than 1. See Overview 3. Although they invented paper, printing, gunpowder, the propeller, the crossbow, and the cannon, the Chinese did not fully exploit these technological innovations as potential instruments of power.

At the end of the twentieth and into the twenty-first century, China made a dramatic change in its attitude and embarked on a concerted policy of economic and technological modernization. Unlike the Egyptian and Judaic cultures discussed later in the chapter, Chinese philosophy focused on living here and now rather than on universal questions about the immortality of the soul. Our examination of Chinese education begins in the third century BCE, when China suffered from political turmoil.

During social and political crises, an important policy question is whether education should attempt to revive the traditions of the past to restore harmony, or develop new strategies for social and economic change.

In answering this question, three philosophies�Legalism, Taoism, and Confucianism�proposed different paths for education in China.

Fearing dissent, legalists imposed a strict censorship to repress alternative philosophies such as Taoism and Confucianism. As a more humane alternative to Legalism, Lao Tzu, a philosopher in the sixth century BCE, developed Taoism, which continues to influence Chinese culture and education.

All things, Lao Tzu claimed, come from and follow an unseen, underlying, unifying force that moves through the world. Unlike the legalists, who wanted to control others, Lao Tzu advised people to stop trying to control other people and events, go with the stream of life, and live simply and spontaneously. He believed it was much more useful to establish the standards to maintain a harmonious ethical society than to ponder unanswerable questions.

Confucius structured his educational philosophy on an ethical hierarchy of responsibilities that began with the emperor and flowed downward, touching everyone in society. His ideal of hierarchical relationships can be depicted as an ethical ladder on which the person standing on each rung is connected to the people standing above and below.

Confucian character education set standards for civility�polite, correct, and appropriate behavior. Endorsing the ideal of the teacher as a mentor, Confucius believed children learn to behave ethically when they have a clear model of appropriate.

Scott Mouton and Charlton M. Teachers need to personify this model of civility that students are to follow in school. Taking the guesswork out of living, Confucius believed there was a correct or appropriate way to behave in every situation and that everyone should learn and follow this prescribed standard. Children should be taught these right ways to behave as a set of rituals or patterns that act out the correct procedures all people are expected to follow.

The Confucian model of character formation removes the chance element from behavior presented when unexpected situations arise. When everyone knows their role and follows its duties and responsibilities, each individual will be in harmony with the larger society. He wanted highly motivated students and set high admission standards for entry to his school. Believing future officials should study the same general subjects, he established a core curriculum of selected great books such as the Classics of Change, Of Documents, Of Poetry, Of Rites, and the Spring and Autumn Annals.

Like other effective teachers, Confucius developed a well-defined system of classroom management. He held high expectations for his students. As a mentor, he did not get too personally familiar with his students. He kept a proper distance from his students but remained approachable to them. The Confucian teacher was entrusted with safeguarding and transmitting the heritage to maintain cultural continuity and social stability.

In the Confucian system, it is more important to keep old friends than to make new ones. Making new friends might bring change that upsets the established social pattern. In situations where relationships are equal and flexible as in the United States, individuals constantly moving from old to new relationships are continually redefining their relationships and creating new openings or boundaries for old and new friends.

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Foundations of education pdf free download George Counts recognized that education was the means of preparing people for creating this new social order. There are several galleries in the area, and if I could. By the s, future teachers had begun attending normal schools discussed in Chapter 5, Historical Development of American Educationalthough formal certification remained unnecessary. Curriculum is a very important theory. Additional Resource In his view, humans must learn to resist oppression and not become its victims, nor oppress others. Confucian character education set standards for, correct, and appropriate behavior.
Dan cooper comics download During social and political crises, an important policy question is whether education should attempt to revive the traditions of the past to restore harmony, or develop strategies for social and economic change. Summing Up 1. Audio Software icon An illustration of a 3. This ensures that students throughout the district are learning the same information and skills. Jessica Ellis. I am sure that many of you have either participated in or observed a program like the one I described. Early research has indicated that graduates are performing at a high level, and retention rates in teaching are unusually strong.
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Images Donate icon An illustration of a heart shape Donate Ellipses icon An illustration of text ellipses. Metropolitan Museum Cleveland Museum of Art. Internet Arcade Console Living Room. Books to Borrow Open Library. Search the Wayback Machine Search icon An illustration of a magnifying glass. Sign up for free Log in. Foundations of education Item Preview. EMBED for wordpress. Want more? Advanced embedding details, examples, and help! Motivation, preparation, and conditions for the entering teacher -- 2.

The world global origins of American education -- 4. Pioneers of teaching and learning -- 5. Historical development of American education -- 6. Governing and administering public education -- 8. Financing public education -- 9. Culture, socialization, and education -- Completely up-to-date throughout, this edition also provides the latest information on the common core curriculum, accountability, technology in education, school reform, diversity, legal rulings, recent trends in school funding and teacher compensation, new instructional practices, teaching licensure, the outlook for careers, and many other important topics.

Allan Ornstein Ph. John s University in New York. He is the author of more than 55 texts and articles and research papers, and has served as a consultant for more than 60 government and educational agencies. Levine has authored numerous journal articles and papers on urban education, school reform, and related topics. Gerald L. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

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