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All indexes and constraints defined on the table being dropped are also dropped. Sequences used in the employees table become invalid.
The space used by the employees table is reclaimed immediately. The employees table can be recovered using the rollback command. The employees table is moved to the recycle bin. B: Dropping a table invalidates dependent objects, such as indexes and constraints. Incorrect: Not B: In general sequences used in the table would not by affected when the table is dropped. Not E: Dropping a table invalidates dependent objects and removes object privileges on the table.
If you want to re-create the table, then you must regrant object privileges on the table, re-create the indexes, integrity constraints, and triggers for the table, and respecify its storage parameters. You need to display customers' second names where the second name starts with "Mc" or "MC. Which query will provide the required result? Examine the sample output: Which query will provide the required output?
Only one primary key can be created for each table. This constraint enforces the uniqueness of the column or column combination and ensures that no column that is part of the primary key can contain a null value. Note: Because uniqueness is part of the primary key constraint definition, the Oracle server enforces the uniqueness by implicitly creating a unique index on the primary key column or columns.
Incorrect: Not A: Two primary keys are not allowed. A table can have only one primary key and one foreign key. A table can have only one primary key but multiple foreign keys.
Only the primary key can be defined at the column and table levels. The foreign key and parent table primary key must have the same name. Both primary key and foreign key constraints can be defined at both column and table levels.
When a data definition language DDL statement is executed E. All products have a list price. What would be the outcome if all the parentheses are removed from the above statement? It produces a syntax error. The result remains unchanged. The total price value would be lower than the correct value. The total price value would be higher than the correct value. Which query gives the correct output? It executes successfully and returns the correct result. It executes successfully but does not return the correct result.
It generates an error because rrrr should be replaced by rr in the format string. It generates an error because fm and double quotation marks should not be used in the format string. You need to generate a report of all promos from the promotions table based on the following conditions: 1. The promo name should not begin with 'T' or 'N'. The promo should have ended after 1st January Which where clause would give the required result? You want to display the maximum and minimum salaries of employees hired 1 year ago.
Which two statements would get the correct output? The report should NOT show any repeated credit amounts in each income level. Which query would give the required result? All data along with the table structure is deleted. A pending transaction in the session is committed. All indexes on the table remain but they are invalidated.
All views and synonyms remain but they are invalidated. All data in the table is deleted but the table structure remains. It executes but returns no rows. It generates output for null as well as the other values produced by the subquery. It ignores the null value and generates output for the other values produced by the subquery.
Newly hired employees are yet to be assigned a department or a manager. For them, 'No Manager1 should be displayed in the manager column. Which SQL query gets the required output? In a character sort, the values are case-sensitive. NULL values are not considered at all by the sort operation. Only those columns that are specified in the select list can be used in the order by clause.
Numeric values are displayed from the maximum to the minimum value if they have decimal positions. Answer: A Explanation: Character Strings and Dates Character strings and date values are enclosed with single quotation marks.
Character values are case-sensitive and date values are format-sensitive. Display the first name and tax amount of the customers. Only those customers whose income level has a value should be considered. Customers whose tax amount is null should not be considered. Which statement accomplishes all the required tasks? You have been asked to produce a report on the customers table showing the customers details sorted in descending order of the city and in the descending order of their income level in each city.
Which query would accomplish this task? You issue the following query: "Pass Any Exam. It executes successfully but returns no result. It executes successfully and returns the required result. It generates an error because the condition specified for the prod category column is not valid. Which query would give the required output? When position is 0 zero , then it is treated as 1. When position is positive, then the function counts from the beginning of string to find the first character.
When position is negative, then the function counts backward from the end of string. You want to find out if any customers' details have been entered more than once using different CUSTNO, by listing all the duplicate names. Which two methods can you use to get the required result? Self-join B. Subquery C. Full outer-join with self-join D.
Left outer-join with self-join E. Those customers who do not have a credit limit should appear last in the list. Which two queries would achieve the required result? It produces an error because column definitions cannot be altered to add default values. It executes successfully and all the rows that have a null value for the country column will be updated with the value 'USA'. It executes successfully. The modification to add the default value takes effect only from subsequent insertions to the table.
It produces an error because the data type for the column is not specified. Answer: C Explanation: It does not affect old lines. A foreign key cannot contain null values. A column with the unique constraint can contain null values. A constraint is enforced only for the insert operation on a table. All constraints can be defined at the column level as well as the table level.
D: Constraints can be added, dropped, enabled, disabled, or validated. DISABLE allows incoming data, regardless of whether it conforms to the constraint Incorrect: Not A: The relational model permits the value of foreign keys either to match the referenced primary or unique key value, or be null. MOD: returns the quotient of a division B. Date-Manipulation Functions Date functions operate on Oracle dates. The "Pass Any Exam.
If date1 is later than date2, the result is positive; if date1 is earlier than date2, the result is negative. The noninteger part of the result represents a portion of the month. The value of n must be an integer and can be negative. The value of char may be a number representing a day or a character string.
If the format model fmt is omitted, date is rounded to the nearest day. TRUNC date[, 'fmt'] : Returns date with the time portion of the day truncated to the unit that is specified by the format model fmt.
If the format model fmt is omitted, date is truncated to the nearest day. Numeric or date expressions are evaluated before being converted to strings ready to be concatenated. Its syntax is CONCAT s1, s2 , where s1 and s2 represent string literals, character column values, or expressions resulting in character values. In contrast, COUNT expr returns the number of non-null values that are in the column identified by expr.
Choose three. It releases the storage space used by the table. It does not release the storage space used by the table. You can roll back the deletion of rows after the statement executes. You can NOT roll back the deletion of rows after the statement executes.
Incorrect answer: C. Which statement creates the foreign key? Choose two. Multiple columns or expressions can be compared between the main query and sub query B. Main query and sub query can get data from different tables "Pass Any Exam. Main query and sub query must get data from the same tables E. The two statements produce identical results. The second statement returns a syntax error. There is no need to specify DESC because the results are sorted in descending order by default.
The two statements can be made to produce identical results by adding a column alias for the salary column in the second SQL statement. Choose all that apply A. A subquery can have any of the usual clauses for selection and projection.
Choose 4 A. Incorrect answer: A. SQL have character, numeric, date, conversion function. QL have character, numeric, date, conversion function. Exhibit Which two tasks would require sub queries or joins in order to be performed in a single step? Which SQL statement accomplishes this task?
FROM students. It removes all the rows as well as the structure of the table B. It removes all the rows in the table and deleted rows cannot be rolled back C. It removes all the rows in the table and deleted rows can be rolled back D. The numbers generated by a sequence can be used only for one table D. When a database instance shuts down abnormally, the sequence numbers that have been cached but not used would be available once again when the database instance is restarted "Pass Any Exam.
Therefore, if you roll back a statement containing a sequence, the number is lost. Another event that can cause gaps in the sequence is a system crash. If the sequence caches values in memory, those values are lost if the system crashes. Because sequences are not tied directly to tables, the same sequence can be used for multiple tables. However, if you do so, each table can contain gaps in the sequential numbers. Answer: D Explanation: Creating a Synonym for an Object To refer to a table that is owned by another user, you need to prefix the table name with the name of the user who created it, followed by a period.
Creating a synonym eliminates the need to qualify the object name with the schema and provides you with an alternative name for a table, view, sequence, procedure, or other objects. This method can be especially useful with lengthy object names, such as views. In the syntax: PUBLIC Creates a synonym that is accessible to all users synonym Is the name of the synonym to be created object Identifies the object for which the synonym is created Guidelines The object cannot be contained in a package.
A private synonym name must be distinct from all other objects that are owned by the same user. Which change fixes the error? An error is generated. You create an alternative name for the employees table in the HR schema in your own schema. They can be nested only to two levels B. They always return a single result row for every row of a queried table C. Arguments can only be column values or constant D.
They can return a data type value different from the one that is referenced E. They accept only a single argument Answer: B,D Explanation: A function is a program written to optionally accept input parameters, perform an operation, or return a single value. A function returns only one value per execution. Three important components form the basis of defining a function. The first is the input parameter list. It specifies zero or more arguments that may be passed to a function as input for processing.
These arguments or parameters may be of differing data types, and some are mandatory while others may be optional. The second component is the data type of its resultant value. Upon execution, only one value is returned by the function.
The third encapsulates the details of the processing performed by the function and contains the program code that optionally manipulates the input parameters, performs calculations and operations, and generates a return value.
The default internal storage of dates is in the numeric format B. The default internal storage of dates is in the character format D. Use the RR date format element instead of YY so that the century of the return value varies according to the specified two digit year and the last two digits of the current year.
The table in the slide summarizes the behavior of the RR element. As we approach the middle of the century, then the RR behavior is probably not what you want. Which SQL statement will accomplish the task? A sub query should retrieve only one row. A sub query can retrieve zero or more rows. A sub query can be used only in SQL query statements. When a sub query is used with an inequality comparison operator in the outer SQL statement, the column list in the SELECT clause of the sub query should contain only one column.
Answer: B,F Explanation: sub query can retrieve zero or more rows, sub query is used with an inequality comparison operator in the outer SQL statement, and the column list in the SELECT clause of the sub query should contain only one column. Which query would give you the required output? Choose all that apply. There can only be one LONG column in a table. Only one LONG column can be used per table. No constraints can be defined on a LONG column. Which two SQL statements would accomplish the task?
Which two SQL statements would give the required output? You can mix single row columns with aggregate functions in the column list of a SELECT statement by grouping on the single row columns. You can pass column names, expressions, constants, or functions as parameter to an aggregate function.
You can use aggregate functions on a table, only by grouping the whole table as one single group. You cannot group the rows of a table by more than one column while using aggregate functions. The data types of the original and if null parameters must always be compatible. They must either be of the same type, or it must be possible to implicitly convert if null to the type of the original parameter. The NVL function returns a value with the same data type as the original parameter.
It produces an error B. It shown the names of all products whose list price is less than the maximum list price D. This avoids the shortcomings associated with the pure natural join. Many situations demand that tables be joined only on certain columns, and this format caters to this requirement.
You study the exhibit carefully. The view will be created and you can perform DLM operations on the view B. The view will not be created because the join statements are not allowed for creating a view C. The data is stored in the database character set. If a value is inserted into the column that is less than this, it is not a problem: the value will only take up as much space as it needs.
The size of the files is limited to 4GB. Similar to DATE, but with precision of up to 9 decimal places for the seconds, 6 places by default. If the rows are present in the target table which match the join condition, they are updated if the rows are not present they are inserted into the target table "Pass Any Exam.
It gives details of product IDs that have been sold irrespective of whether they had a promo or not B. It gives the details of promos for which there have been no sales C. It gives the details of promos for which there have been sales D. It shows products that have a cost recorded irrespective of sales B. It shows products that were sold and have a cost recorded C. It shows products that were sold but have no cost recorded "Pass Any Exam. Both the statements execute and give the same result B.
Both the statements execute and give different results C. Only the second SQL statement executes successfully D. If the first expression is not null, the NVL2 function returns the second expression. If the first expression is null, the third expression is returned.
For each data manipulation language DML operation performed, the corresponding indexes are automatically updated.
Exhibit: "Pass Any Exam. The set of statements contains an error and does not work. What is the outcome? Number of days since the promo started based on the current Singapore data and time. Performance would degrade in query 2 C. There would be no change in performance D. Therefore, using the IN operator has no performance benefits and is used only for logical simplicity. You need to find those customers who have never changed their address. Which SET operator would you use to get the required output?
Which statement is true in this scenario? You cannot add a primary key constraint if data exists in the column B. You can add the primary key constraint even if data exists, provided that there are no duplicate values C.
The primary key constraint can be created only a the time of table creation D. Exhibit: you issue the following SQL statement on the CUSTOMERS table to display the customers who are in the same country as customers with the last name 'king' and whose credit limit is less than the maximum credit limit in countries that have customers with the last name 'king'.
It executes and shows the required result D. Which two SQL statements give the required result? It executes successfully and gives the required result "Pass Any Exam.
The ON clause can be used to join tables on columns that have different names but compatible data types B. A maximum of one pair of columns can be joined between two tables using the ON clause C. Furthermore, if that column is used anywhere in the SQL statement, you cannot alias it. Creating Joins with the ON Clause The join condition for the natural join is basically an equijoin of all columns with the same name.
Use the ON clause to specify arbitrary conditions or specify columns to join. Which SQL statement accomplishes this? It cannot be used as SQL command. This command returns a description of tablename, including all columns in that table, the datatype for each column and an indication of whether the column permits storage of NULL values.
Define columns with column names and default values. Guidelines The table is created with the specified column names, and the rows retrieved by the SELECT statement are inserted into the table.
The column definition can contain only the column name and default value. If column specifications are given, the number of columns must equal the number of columns in the subquery SELECT list. If no column specifications are given, the column names of the table are the same as the column names in the subquery. Any other constraint rules are not passed to the new table. However, you can add constraints in the column definition. A format model is a character literal that describes the format of datetime stored in a character string.
But be sure to separate the date value from the format model with a comma. The columns in the queries that make up a compound query can have different names, but the output result set will use the names of the columns in the first query. NUMBER 4, 3 The registrar has asked for a report on the average grade point average GPA , sorted from the highest grade point average to each semester, starting from the earliest date. Which statement accomplish this?
Exhibit: Evaluate the following query: Exhibit: The above query produces an error on execution. An alias cannot be used in an expression "Pass Any Exam. Synonyms can be created only for a table B. Synonyms are used to reference only those tables that are owned by another user C. The start value of the sequence is always 1. A sequence always increments by 1. The minimum value of an ascending sequence defaults to 1. The maximum value of descending sequence defaults to 1. It evaluates whether a column or expression of any data type is null or not.
Recall that the NVL function is different since it returns the original term if it is not null. The NVL2 function takes three mandatory parameters. Its syntax is NVL2 original, ifnotnull, ifnull , where original represents the term being tested. Ifnotnull is returned if original is not null, and ifnull is returned if original is null.
The data types of the ifnotnull and ifnull parameters must be compatible, and they cannot be of type LONG. They must either be of the same type, or it must be possible to convert ifnull to the type of the ifnotnull parameter.
The data type returned by the NVL2 function is the same as that of the ifnotnull parameter. Choose columns from a table Bring together data that is stored in different tables by creating a link between them. Which set of keywords describes these capabilities? Number of days since the promo started based on the current Chicago data and time B. Incorrect answer: B. Table name must begin with a letter.
Exhibit: Which two statements are true regarding the above view? Only one column or expression can be compared between the main query and subqeury D. Main query and sub query can get data from different tables E. Main query and sub query must get data from the same tables F. The DECODE function implements ifthen-else conditional logic by testing its first two terms for equality and returns the third if they are equal and optionally returns another term if they are not. Convert any date literal to a date B.
Convert any numeric literal to a date C. Convert any character literal to a date D. Convert any date to a character literal E. Answer: B,D Explanation: B: A unique constraint can contain null values because null values cannot be compared to anything. The rollback generates an error C. She has the privilege to create a public synonym, and would like to create a synonym for this view that can be used by all users of the database.
Which SQL statement can Mary use to accomplish that task? You need to generate a report showing the promo name along with the customer name for all products that were sold during their promo campaign and before 30th October It executes successfully and gives the required result.
It executes successfully but does not give the required result. It produces an error because the join order of the tables is incorrect. Evaluate the query statement: "Pass Any Exam. Which SQL statements are valid? You need to generate a report in the following format: "Pass Any Exam. The q operator enables you to choose from a set of possible pairs of wrapping symbols for character literals as alternatives to the "Pass Any Exam.
Using the q operator, the character delimiter can effectively be changed from a single quotation mark to any other character The syntax of the alternative quote operator is as follows: q'delimiter'character literal which may include the single quotes delimiter' where delimiter can be any character or bracket.
It displays all values. This option specifies what the escape character is. Evaluate the following SQL statement: The above query generates an error on execution. Which clause in the above SQL statement causes the error?
The LIKE operator cannot be used with single- row subqueries. In a SQL statement, you represent the name of an object with a quoted identifier or a nonquoted identifier.
A quoted identifier begins and ends with double quotation marks ". If you name a schema object using a quoted identifier, then you must use the double quotation marks whenever you refer to that object. A nonquoted identifier is not surrounded by any punctuation. The following list of rules applies to both quoted and nonquoted identifiers unless otherwise indicated: Names must be from 1 to 30 bytes long with these exceptions: Names of databases are limited to 8 bytes.
Names of database links can be as long as bytes. If an identifier includes multiple parts separated by periods, then each attribute can be up to 30 bytes long. Each period separator, as well as any surrounding double quotation marks, counts as one byte.
For example, suppose you identify a column like this: "schema". Quoted identifiers can be reserved words, although this is not recommended. Depending on the Oracle product you plan to use to access a database object, names might be further restricted by other product-specific reserved words.
The Oracle SQL language contains other words that have special meanings. These words are not reserved. However, Oracle uses them internally in specific ways. Therefore, if you use these words as names for objects and object parts, then your SQL statements may be more difficult to read and may lead to unpredictable results. You should use ASCII characters in database names, global database names, and database link names, because ASCII characters provide optimal compatibility across different platforms and operating systems.
Quoted identifiers can begin with any character. Database links can also contain periods. Quoted identifiers can contain any characters and punctuations marks as well as spaces. Within a namespace, no two objects can have the same name.
Nonquoted identifiers are not case sensitive. Oracle interprets them as uppercase. Quoted identifiers are case sensitive. By enclosing names in double quotation marks, you can give the following names to different objects in the same namespace: employees "employees" "Employees" "EMPLOYEES" Note that Oracle interprets the following names the same, so they cannot be used for different objects in the same namespace: employees "Pass Any Exam.
However, columns in different tables or views can have the same name. Procedures or functions contained in the same package can have the same name, if their arguments are not of the same number and datatypes.
Creating multiple procedures or functions with the same name in the same package with different arguments is called overloading the procedure or function. Which views can have all DML operations performed on it? The inner query always sorts the results of the outer query B. The outer query always sorts the results of the inner query C. The outer query must return a value to the outer query D. The inner query returns a value to the outer query E. The inner query must always return a value or the outer query will give an error Answer: D Explanation: The inner query returns a value to the outer query.
Evaluate the following SQL statement: Which statement is true regarding the outcome of the above query? Only two sub queries can be placed at one level. Dates are stored in the default format of dd-mon-rr.
It can have a maximum of five expressions in a list. It requires that all expressions in the list must be of the same data type. If all its parameters are null, then null is returned.
You can create two types of indexes. The name of the index is the name that is given to the constraint. Note: You can manually create a unique index, but it is recommended that you create a unique constraint, which implicitly creates a unique index.
Which two queries would give the required result? They can contain a subquery within a sub query. They can return multiple columns as well as rows. They cannot contain a sub query within a sub query.
They can return only one column but multiple rows. It is executed first in the query execution. You cannot specify a column name followed by an expression in this clause. You can specify a combination of numeric positions and column names in this clause.
It can be used to join a maximum of three tables. It can be used to access data from tables through equijoins as well as nonequijoins. It can be used to join tables that have columns with the same name and compatible data types. Common columns are columns that have the same name in both tables.
Syntax "Pass Any Exam. It enforces that a value must be defined for this column such that the column may not be NULL for any row. Incorrect Answers "Pass Any Exam. It can be defined not only at the column level. The CHECK constraint enforces that values added to the constrained column must be present in a static list of values permitted for the column. If the primary key applies to multiple columns, then the combination of values in the columns must be unique and not NULL. It allows a grantee DBA privileges.
It is required syntax for object privileges. It allows privileges on specified columns of tables. It is used to grant an object privilege on a foreign key column.
It allows the grantee to grant object privileges to other users and roles. It is not required syntax for object privileges. GRANT command does not allows privileges on columns of tables. It is not used to grant an object privilege on a foreign key column.
Incorrect Answers A:. This substitution variable will prompt the user each time. It used to define more accurate or specific prompt or when you want more output to display as the values are defined. Existing rows will not be affected. No privileges. All the privileges of a default user.
Answer: A Explanation: There are no privileges for the user Scott at this point. They are not added themselves to the user immediately after creation. The DBA needs to grant all privileges explicitly. Incorrect Answers B:. There are no privileges for the user Scott at this point.
There is no default user in Oracle. Choose two A. It does not complete a transaction. The mailing label must have only the customer name and address. This answer does not provide correct list of columns for the output. It is not required to show all columns of the table.
Binary data up to 4 gigabytes. Character data up to 4 gigabytes. Raw binary data of variable length up to 2 gigabytes. Binary data stored in an external file, up to 4 gigabytes. They also uniquely identify the rows in your table. It is not a binary data. It is not a character data. It is not a raw binary data. It is not binary data stored in an external file. Choose four A. You cannot roll back this statement.
All pending transactions are committed. All views based on the DEPT table are deleted. All indexes based on the DEPT table are dropped.
All data in the table is deleted, and the table structure is also deleted. All data in the table is deleted, but the structure of the table is retained. All synonyms based on the DEPT table are deleted. All pending transactions related on this table are committed.
If the table is dropped, Oracle automatically drops any index, trigger and constraint associated with the table as well. Incorrect Answers C:. All views based on the DEPT table become invalid, but they are not deleted. All synonyms based on the DEPT table are not deleted after dropping the table.
What does this allow you to do? Create a table view. Create a view in any schema. Create a view in your schema.
Create a sequence view in any schema. Create a view only of it is based on tables that you created. You can create a view in your own schema only. You can create a view in your own schema only, not in any schema. There is no sequence view in Oracle. You cannot create a view that is accessible by everyone. You can create a view in your own schema, but not only for tables in your schema.
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