These kingdoms are the simplest eukaryotic, microscopic, heterotrophic animals that come under Protista. They are unicellular. All biological activities take place in the cell. They are hosts. Some protozoa are parasitic.
They are clean aquatic or marine. Some are also found in moist soil. Marine types of amoeboid protozoa have a silica shell on their surface. They move and feed with the help of pseudopodia. Some amoebic protozoa such as entamoeba are parasitic. Causes of Entamoeba histolytica in humans. Amoebic dysentery is a disease.
The members of this group are either independent or parasitic. The protective covering on their body is a pellicle. Flagella is helpful in circulation and nutrition. Trypanosoma parasites cause sleeping sickness, Leishmania causes Kala-azar disease. The members of this group are aquatic and have a lot of ciliates. The body is surrounded by a rigid pellicle. They have permanent cytostomes and cytopyge.
Due to the rhythmic movement in the ciliary, the food reaches the cytoplasm. They are intra-parasitic. They lack circulation. There is a cover. Infectious spores are formed during their life cycle. Malaria disease caused by the malaria parasite-Plasmodium a few decades ago affected the human population. These were first discovered by Ivanovsky Iwanovsky, These are also filtered through proof filters. Beijerinck M.
Beijerinck, found that rubbing the sap of infected diseased plants on the leaves of healthy plants can also cause disease to healthy plants. On this basis, they were called liquid poisons or infectious living liquids. Stanley W. Stanley, isolated the virus in its crystalline state. Dallington Darlington, discovered that viruses are made up of nucleoproteins.
Viruses are considered as the connecting link between living and nonliving. Live Virus Symptoms. They get activated when they come in contact with living cells. The nucleic acid of the virus reaches the host cell and controls the metabolic activities of the cell and starts self-multiplication and also synthesizes the necessary proteins for itself.
This increases the number of viruses, that is, reproduction. Propagation in viruses occurs only in living cells. Genetic variations arise due to mutation in them. Viruses respond to heat, chemical substances, radiation, and other stimuli. From the previous topic, students have learned about the five Classifications of the plant kingdom. The entire plant kingdom is Classified into five sections ï¿½ Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms.
This Chapter explains the typical characteristics of each of these plant Classes and helps to understand the process of Classification. Furthermore, students can also learn about different life cycles of plants and also their alteration of generation. Thus, students can achieve a firm base about the plant kingdom, its taxonomy. Economic Importance Of Algae.
Algae are rich in carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamins. Proteins are abundant in Chlorella. Vitamins are found. It is being recognized as the food of the future. With this, there is every possibility of solving the food problem of our growing population. Algae in Industry:. It is used in a variety of industries; For Example, metal coating, varnish, polish, toothpaste, insulating surface, etc. Carrageenin is obtained from algae-like Chondrus, Eucheuma, etc. It is used in making cosmetics, shampoo, etc.
Algin is obtained from Alaria, Laminaria, etc. It is used in the manufacture of non-flammable films, synthetic fibers, etc. It is also used to stop blood flow during surgery. Iodine, bromine, etc. The antibiotic chlorellin is obtained from chlorella. It destroys the bacteria. Mosquitoes of the reservoir are destroyed by the presence of Chara and Nitella algae; Therefore, they are helpful in eradicating malaria.
Agar-agar is obtained from red algae, it is used for artificial culture. Economic Importance Of Gymnosperms. The seeds of Chilgoza Pinus gerardiana are eaten. The seeds of Gnetum, Ginkgo, and Cycas are used as food. Wood for Furniture: Wood obtained from pine Pinus , cedar Cedrus , cal Pinus wallichiana , fur Abies is used as furniture and timber.
The first half of this Chapter explains what the basis of this Classification system is. The taxonomical factors include organization levels, symmetry, triploblastic and diploblastic organizations, coelom, segmentation, and notochord.
Furthermore, the second part of this topic is about the Classification of this kingdom on the basis of common fundamental physical features. A Aestivation: The mutually relative arrangement of sepals or petals in the bud stage is called floret configuration.
It is corrosive, twisted, cortical, or vexillary type. Seedlings are of the marginal, columnar, periphery, free columnar, base ascendant or surface type. In this, the ovary is half superior. Rhizome: These stems growing in the ground parallel to the horizontal plane of the ground store food.
In these, festivals and festivals can be seen. Their length increases through anterior buds and branches through orbital buds. Corm: Their symptoms are like rhizomes, but they are vertically growing underground stems.
In this type of stem, there are also festivals and festivals. This food is stored. There are buds. Orbital buds from anthers. Example- Arvi, Banda, Jimikand, etc.
Stem Tuber: These are formed due to flowering at the ends of underground branches. Their shape is irregular. There are festivals or festivals on the tuber, which are not clear due to the accumulation of food in large quantities. Potatoes have many eyes on the surface, which have buds and scales to cover them. Buds grow to form new aerial shoots. Bulbs : The stem is short briefly conical or flattened in this type of metamorphosis.
The adventitious roots emerge from its basal part. Food gets stored in many scale sheets present on this stem. Under favorable conditions, aerial shoots are formed from the bud present at the anterior end of the stem. Orbital buds are also formed in the cell of scale sheets. Example- Onion, garlic, lily etc.
Scale tubers. From here, the second unit of the syllabus starts. This unit includes three consecutive Chapters from five to seven. Morphology suggests the study of the external structure of various organisms.
Previously, students have learned the Classification of plants based on their morphological and other distinct characteristics. Here, all these morphological characteristics are described in a well-presented manner. In this Chapter, students can study the root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit, and seed.
Moreover, it also contains a description of common flowering plants and explains the typical characteristics of some vital plant families. Structural variations and similarities can be spotted easily by observing the living organism. However, anatomy is the study of internal structures and their functions. In other words, this Chapter teaches about the different types of tissues found in plant bodies and tissue systems based on the location.
The anatomy of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants is also elaborately described in this Chapter. Moreover, students can get to know about two different growth of plants- primary and secondary growth. Unicellular organisms perform all of their life processes like respiration, reproduction, digestion, etc. At the same time, multicellular organisms use various organs developed by different cells to perform different functions.
So, this Chapter is all about various animal tissues, cells, organs and their systems, functions, etc. As an Example, students can see the morphological and anatomical structure of earthworms, cockroaches, and frogs. All these three animals represent vertebrates and invertebrates. So, students can have an idea about animal structure by learning about these animals.
This unit has three Chapters in it, and they are all about the function and structure of the cell. All living organisms are made of cells- they could be single-celled or multiple-celled. After defining cells, this topic also concludes cell theory. This theory suggests that all living beings comprise cell and cell products, and cells are created from prevailing cells.
It provides a detailed overview of the cell and the difference between plant cells and animal cells. Moreover, it also encapsulates various types of cells with Examples like red blood cells, white blood cells, columnar epithelial cells, nerve cells, mesophyll cells, etc.
Lastly, this Chapter closes with two major types of cells ï¿½ prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and their characteristics, functions, etc. Ultrastructure :. It is a double-layered structure. Finger-like inflorescences are found which are called cristae. The space between the two layers is called the peri mitochondrial space. On the surface of Christie small particles are found called F1 particles or exosomes. It is said that exosomes in the process of oxidative phosphatization respiratory participate in ATP formation.
Electrons at Christie's of Mitochondria. Transduction takes place resulting in the formation of ATP. In its matrix, D. A, Ribosomes, Water, Salts, wicks related to the Krebs cycle etc.
See you, etc. Function of Mitochondria. The Krebs cycle in the matrix of the mitochondria and the electron transport mechanism of the respiratory chain at the oxysome F1 particle is carried out, from which the free energy is stored in ATP.
ATP provides kinetic energy for all biological activities. Structure of The Lava. The receptacles are surrounded by a double membrane. These are found only in eukaryotic plant cells. These are not found in fungi. It was discovered by Heikel and Schimper named it plastid. Leucoplasts are of three types; Chromoplast and Chloroplast. Leucoplast :. These are cumulative lavers. They are colorless as there is no pigment.
Textbooks for all subjects in all mediums are available as e-books on their official website for students to download. It enables easier access to Maharashtra board class 11th books for students. Provided below are the links to download some of the major subjects for the English medium students:. These Maharashtra board 11th Science book PDFs are incredibly helpful for any student who wants to do well on the final exam and can be downloaded easily. It lays the foundation for most of the questions asked on the Science stream final exam.
The table contains PDFs of all subjects under the Science stream. Students in the Commerce stream can use the Maharashtra state board's 11th Commerce books to study for their final exams.
The e-book PDFs can aid students in learning and test preparation. The table contains PDFs of all subjects under the Commerce stream. For Class 11, Arts is also an important subject. The Maharashtra board 11th books for Arts subjects PDFs will assist students in studying for upcoming exams. Refer to the table below, which contains PDFs of all subjects under the Arts stream.
Students can follow the detailed steps below to visit the official website and download e-books for all subjects or specific subjects in different mediums.
Chapter 9 Biomolecules Questions. Chapter 10 Cell Cycle and Cell Division. Chapter 11 Transport in Plants. Chapter 11 Transport in Plants Questions. Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition. Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition Questions. Chapter 13 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants. Chapter 14 Respiration In Plants.
Chapter 15 Plant Growth and Development. Chapter 16 Digestion and Absorption. Chapter 17 Breathing and Exchange of Gases. Chapter 18 Body Fluids and Circulation. Chapter 19 Excretory Products and Their Elimination. Chapter 20 Locomotion and Movement.
Chapter 20 Locomotion and Movements. Chapter 21 Neural Control and Coordination. Chapter 21 Neural Control and Coordination Questions. Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination and integration. Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination and Integration Questions. Model Answers To Descriptive Questions. Model Question Paper. Answer of Multiple Choice Questions. You can click on the links below to download the Biology book that you want to read in Class We have provided options above to download the full book or each chapter in PDF.
You can save the textbooks in English and Hindi medium. Just click on the link below and the book will save on your computer. For Grade 11 students NCERT textbooks are best for understanding various topics which the students have to study or even for preparing for their exams. Our teachers of Biology recommend standard 11 students to read these textbooks while preparing for their exams or even for higher level competitive examinations.
Many times it has been seen that questions asked in exams directly come from the books itself. Some Biology questions are being slightly modified to test analytical skills of kids.
You should carefully read each chapter to understand all topics properly. We are seeing regularly that these books are used for CBSE Biology exams and are also useful for competitive exams as well. We have provided option here to download the books in PDF format incase you are not able to buy the books from a nearby bookstore. You have come to the correct portal. Entry Tests. Virtual University.
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WebSamacheer Kalvi 11th Books PDF Free Download: TN Samacheer Kalvi Class 11th Standard Textbooks uploaded and available for free download PDF. Tamil . WebApr 17, ï¿½ï¿½ By clicking on the links below for the ebooks you can download in pdf for Class 11 Biology. If you need the full textbook issued by NCERT or whether you . WebFederal Book of Biology Class Each chapter of Biology book for class 11 Federal board pdf is uploaded in very high quality for the easy readability and access offline and .