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Page numbers are not used in Bible citations. Yes, in the 7th edition of APA Style , versions of the Bible are treated much like other books ; you should include the edition you used in your reference list.

Previously, in the 6th edition of the APA manual, it was recommended to just use APA 6 in-text citations to refer to the Bible, and omit it from the reference list. To make it easy for the reader to find the YouTube video , list the person or organization who uploaded the video as the author in your reference entry and APA in-text citation. When you need to highlight a specific moment in a video or audio source, use a timestamp in your APA in-text citation.

To include a direct quote in APA , follow these rules:. A list of tables and list of figures appear in that order after your table of contents, and are presented in a similar way. Copyright information can usually be found wherever the table or figure was published. Images found on sites like Flickr are listed with clear copyright information. If you find that permission is required to reproduce the material, be sure to contact the author or publisher and ask for it.

If you adapt or reproduce a table or figure from another source, you should include that source in your APA reference list. You should also include copyright information in the note for the table or figure, and include an APA in-text citation when you refer to it.

Tables and figures you created yourself, based on your own data, are not included in the reference list. An APA in-text citation is placed before the final punctuation mark in a sentence. Parenthetical citation: Brown, , as cited in Mahone, Narrative citation: Brown , as cited in Mahone, states that…. On the reference page , you only include the secondary source Mahone, Read more about alphabetizing the APA reference page. If the author of a work is unknown, order the reference by its title.

Yes, if relevant you can and should include APA in-text citations in your appendices. Use author-date citations as you do in the main text. Any sources cited in your appendices should appear in your reference list. Do not create a separate reference list for your appendices. Something is only worth including as an appendix if you refer to information from it at some point in the text e. You should also acknowledge the original source in the note or caption for the table or figure.

A list of tables and list of figures appear in that order after your table of contents , and are presented in a similar way. This is often the case when you need to communicate a large amount of information. If the data you need to present only contains a few relevant numbers, try summarizing it in the text potentially including full data in an appendix.

If describing the data makes your text overly long and difficult to read, a table or figure may be the best option. In an APA Style paper , the abstract is placed on a separate page after the title page page 2.

An APA abstract is around — words long. In APA Style , all sources that are not retrievable for the reader are cited as personal communications. Common examples include conversations, emails, messages, letters, and unrecorded interviews or performances.

Interviews you conducted yourself are not included in your reference list , but instead cited in the text as personal communications. Published or recorded interviews are included in the reference list. Cite them in the usual format of the source type for example, a newspaper article , website or YouTube video. Dorsey, J. To cite content from social media that is not publicly accessible e. James, Twitter direct message, March 25, When you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a source, you need to indicate the location of the passage in your APA in-text citation.

If there are no page numbers e. Section headings can be shortened if necessary. Kindle location numbers should not be used in ebook citations , as they are unreliable. When no individual author name is listed, but the source can clearly be attributed to a specific organization—e. When no author at all can be determined—e. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it appears in plain text in the reference list, and in italics if it appears in italics in the reference list.

Shorten it if necessary. APA Style usually does not require an access date. You never need to include one when citing journal articles , e-books , or other stable online sources. However, the 6th edition, published in , is still used by many universities and journals.

The American Psychological Association anticipates that most people will start using the 7th edition in the spring of or thereafter. In the 7th edition of the APA manual, no location information is required for publishers.

The 6th edition previously required you to include the city and state where the publisher was located, but this is no longer the case. In an APA reference list , journal article citations include only the year of publication, not the exact date, month, or season. You may include up to 20 authors in a reference list entry.

When an article has more than 20 authors, replace the names prior to the final listed author with an ellipsis, but do not omit the final author:. Davis, Y. Hawi, N. The relations among social media addiction, self-esteem, and life satisfaction in university students. Social Science Computer Review , 35 5 , — Note that the author can also be an organization.

For example: American Psychological Association, Always include page numbers in the APA in-text citation when quoting a source. If your source does not have page numbers, you can use an alternative locator such as a timestamp, chapter heading or paragraph number. Enclose the title in double quotation marks when citing an article, web page or book chapter. Italicize the title of periodicals, books, and reports.

For example: Johnson, n. APA Style papers should be written in a font that is legible and widely accessible. The same font and font size is used throughout the document, including the running head , page numbers, headings , and the reference page. Text in footnotes and figure images may be smaller and use single line spacing.

You need an APA in-text citation and reference entry. Each source type has its own format; for example, a webpage citation is different from a book citation. APA format is widely used by professionals, researchers, and students in the social and behavioral sciences, including fields like education, psychology, and business.

Be sure to check the guidelines of your university or the journal you want to be published in to double-check which style you should be using. Yes, page numbers are included on all pages, including the title page , table of contents , and reference page. Page numbers should be right-aligned in the page header. Want to contact us directly? No problem. We are always here for you.

Scribbr specializes in editing study-related documents. We proofread:. You can find all the citation styles and locales used in the Scribbr Citation Generator in our publicly accessible repository on Github. Frequently asked questions See all. You can place footnotes at the bottom of the relevant pages, or on a separate footnotes page at the end: For footnotes at the bottom of the page, you can use your word processor to automatically insert footnotes.

Indent the first line of each footnote, and double-space them. For both approaches, place a space between the superscript number and the footnote text. However, you can use APA footnotes sparingly for two purposes: Giving additional information Providing copyright attribution. Is the passive voice allowed in APA Style?

What statistical results do you need to report according to APA style? Report the following for each hypothesis test: the test statistic value the degrees of freedom the exact p value unless it is less than 0.

How many decimal places do you use in APA style? Use one decimal place for: Means Standard deviations Descriptive statistics based on discrete data Use two decimal places for: Correlation coefficients Proportions Inferential test statistics such as t values, F values, and chi-squares.

What tense should I write the methods section in? What should I include in an APA methods section? Describe all relevant participant or subject characteristics, the sampling procedures used and the sample size and power. Define all primary and secondary measures and discuss the quality of measurements. Specify the data collection methods, the research design and data analysis strategy, including any steps taken to transform the data and statistical analyses.

Generate APA citations for free. It is not uncommon for certain information to be unknown or missing, especially with sources found online.

In these cases, the reference is slightly adjusted. Place the page right after the main body and before any appendices. On the second line, start listing your references in alphabetical order.

On the reference page, you only include sources that you have cited in the text with an in-text citation. Are you a teacher or professor looking to introduce your students to APA Style? When no individual author name is listed, but the source can clearly be attributed to a specific organization—e.

When no author at all can be determined—e. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it appears in plain text in the reference list, and in italics if it appears in italics in the reference list. Shorten it if necessary. When you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a source, you need to indicate the location of the passage in your APA in-text citation. If there are no page numbers e.

Section headings can be shortened if necessary. Kindle location numbers should not be used in ebook citations , as they are unreliable.

APA Style usually does not require an access date. You never need to include one when citing journal articles , e-books , or other stable online sources. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations! Prevent plagiarism.

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Linkin park hybrid theory full album free mp3 download In an APA Style paperthe abstract is placed on a feee page after the title page page 2. Want to contact us directly? An APA abstract is around — words long. Can I cite sources in continue reading appendix? Page numbers are not used in Bible citations. Social Science Computer Review35 5—

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Paper formatting and sample papers, tables, and figures guidelines for professional papers, student papers, and annotated bibliographies; sample professional paper and student paper; more than 40 sample tables and figures guidelines for student papers and annotated bibliographies; sample student paper; 23 sample tables and figures Citation guidelines and sample references more than sample references, including traditional sources e.

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This quick glimpse at what the APA has in store offers encouraging news about the road ahead. I am thoroughly energized about the ways this guide can push language forward. This full acceptance in the APA style guide is major. And wonderful. The Publication Manual is used by all writers, researchers, editors, students, and educators in a wide variety of disciplines, so this clarification has the potential to significantly expand the use of inclusive language.

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I give a 4 instead of 5 because of glued pages. See all reviews. The degree to which any journal emphasizes NHST is a decision of the individual editor. However, complete reporting of all tested hypotheses and estimates of appropriate effect sizes and confidence intervals are the minimum expectations for all APA journals. Researchers are always responsible for the accurate and responsible reporting of the results of their research study. Assume that readers have a professional knowledge of statistical methods.

Do not review basic concepts and procedures or provide citations for the most commonly used statistical procedures. If, however, there is any question about the appropriateness of a particular statistical procedure, justify its use by clearly stating the evidence that exists for the robustness of the procedure as applied. Missing Data. Missing data can have a detrimental effect on the legitimacy of the inferences drawn by statistical tests.

Data might be described as missing completely at random as when values of the missing variable are not related to the probability that they are missing or to the value of any other variable in the data set , missing at random as when the probability of missing a value on a variable is not related to the missing value itself but may be related to other completely observed variables in the data set , or not missing at random as when the probability of observing a given value for a variable is related to the missing value itself.

It is also important to describe the methods for addressing missing data, if any were used e. When reporting the results of inferential statistical tests or when providing estimates of parameters or effect sizes, include sufficient information to help readers fully understand the analyses conducted and possible alternative explanations for the outcomes of those analyses. However, such a set usually includes at least the following: per-cell sample sizes, observed cell means or frequencies of cases in each category for a categorical variable , and cell standard deviations or pooled within-cell variance.

In the case of multivariable analytic systems, such as multivariate analyses of variance, regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and hierarchical linear modeling, the associated means, sample sizes, and variance—covariance or correlation matrix or matrices often represent a sufficient set of statistics.

At times, the amount of information that constitutes a sufficient set of statistics is extensive; when this is the case, the information could be supplied in a supplementary data set or an appendix see Sections 2.

For analyses based on small samples including N-of-1 investigations; see Section 3. Your work will more easily become a part of the cumulative knowledge of the field if you include enough statistical information to allow its inclusion in future meta-analyses. For inferential statistical tests e. When point estimates e. Inclusion of Confidence Intervals. It can be extremely effective to include confidence intervals for estimates of parameters; functions of parameters, such as differences in means; and effect sizes when reporting results.

Because confidence intervals combine information on location and precision and can be directly used to infer significance levels, they are generally the best reporting strategy. As a rule, it is best to use a single confidence level, Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish specified on an a priori basis e. Wherever possible, base discussion and interpretation of results on point and interval estimates.

When using complex data-analytic techniques—such as structural equation modeling, Bayesian techniques, hierarchical linear modeling, factor analysis, multivariate analysis, and similar approaches—provide details of the models estimated see Section 3.

Also provide usually in supplemental materials the associated variance—covariance or correlation matrices. Identify the software used to run the analysis e. Report any estimation problems e. Report any problems with statistical assumptions or data issues that might affect the validity of the findings. Effect Sizes.

Effect sizes are statistical estimates; therefore, whenever possible, provide a confidence interval for each effect size reported to indicate the precision of estimation of the effect size. Effect sizes may be expressed in the original units e. It is valuable to also report an effect size in some standardized or units-free or scale-free unit e.

Multiple degree-of-freedom effect-size indicators are less useful than effect-size indicators that decompose multiple degree-of-freedom tests into meaningful one degree-of-freedom effects, particularly when the latter are the results that inform the discussion.

The general principle to follow is to provide readers with enough information to assess the magnitude of the observed effect. Studies With Experimental Manipulations or Interventions. In studies reporting the results of experimental manipulations or interventions, clarify whether the analysis was by intent to treat. That is, were all participants assigned to conditions included in the data analysis regardless of whether they actually received the intervention, or were only participants who Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish completed the intervention satisfactorily included?

Give a rationale for the choice. Ancillary Analyses. Report any other analyses performed, including subgroup analyses and adjusted analyses, indicating those that were prespecified and those that were exploratory although not necessarily in the level of detail of primary analyses. Consider putting the detailed results of ancillary analyses in supplemental materials. Discuss the implications, if any, of the ancillary analyses for statistical error rates.

Baseline Data. Adverse Events. If interventions were studied, detail all important adverse events i. If none occurred, note this as well. In the Discussion section of a quantitative paper, examine, interpret, and qualify the results of your research and draw inferences and conclusions from them. In the case of empirical studies, there should be a tight relationship between the results that are reported and their discussion. Emphasize any theoretical or practical consequences of the results.

Open the Discussion section with a clear statement of support or nonsupport for all hypotheses, distinguished by primary and secondary hypotheses. In the case of ambiguous outcomes, explain why the results are judged as such. Discuss the implications of exploratory analyses in terms of both substantive findings and error rates that may be uncontrolled.

Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish Similarities and differences between your results and the work of others where they exist should be used to contextualize, confirm, and clarify your conclusions.

Limitations and Strengths. If an intervention or manipulation is involved, discuss whether it was successfully implemented, and note the mechanism by which it was intended to work i.

Discuss the fidelity with which the intervention or manipulation was implemented, and describe the barriers that were responsible for any lack of fidelity. Acknowledge the limitations of your research, and address alternative explanations of the results. Discuss the generalizability, or external validity, of the findings. This critical analysis should take into account differences between the target population and the accessed sample.

For interventions, discuss characteristics that make them more or less applicable to circumstances not included in the study, what outcomes were measured and how relative to other measures that might have been used , the length of time to measurement between the end of the intervention and the measurement of outcomes , incentives, compliance rates, and specific settings involved in the study as well as other contextual issues.

Study Implications. End the Discussion section with a reasoned and justifiable commentary on the importance of your findings. This concluding section may be brief, or it may be extensive if it is tightly reasoned, selfcontained, and not overstated. In the conclusion, consider returning to a discussion of why the problem is important as stated in the introduction ; what larger issues, meaning those that transcend the particulars of the subfield, might hinge on the findings; and what propositions are confirmed or disconfirmed by the extrapolation of these findings to such overarching issues.

Also consider the following issues: Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish What is the theoretical, clinical, or practical significance of the outcomes, and what is the basis for these interpretations?

If the findings are valid and replicable, what real-life psychological phenomena might be explained or modeled by the results? Are applications warranted on the basis of this research? What problems remain unresolved or arise anew because of these findings? The responses to these questions are the core of the contribution of your study and justify why readers both inside and outside your specialty should attend to the findings. Readers should receive clear, unambiguous, and direct answers.

Additional standards apply because of particular design features or empirical claims made. Studies with experimental e. See Figure 3. Studies Using Random Assignment. Describe the unit of randomization and the procedures used to generate assignments. Be careful to note when units such as classrooms are the unit of randomization, even though data collection may be from individual students within the classroom.

Indicate the unit of randomization in the analysis of such study outcomes as well. Describe masking provisions used to ensure the quality of the randomization process. Studies Using Nonrandom Assignment. Describe the unit of assignment and the method rules used to assign the unit to the condition, including details of any assignment restrictions such as blocking, stratification, and so forth.

Describe any procedures used to minimize selection bias such as matching or propensity score matching. Within the JARS context, a clinical trial or a randomized clinical trial is a research investigation that evaluates the effects of one or more health-related interventions e. Most clinical trials are experimental studies with random assignment, so all reporting standards for those types of studies also apply.

Report information about the clinical trial aspect of the study. If the trial has been registered e. In the Method section, provide details of any site-specific considerations if the trial is a multisite trial.

Describe the data safety and monitoring board and any stopping rules if used. If there was a follow-up, provide the rationale for the length of the follow-up period. Nonexperimental Designs. Their purpose is to observe, describe, classify, or analyze naturally occurring relationships between variables of interest. In general, describe the design of the study, methods of participant selection and sampling e.

Define all variables and describe the comparability of assessment across natural groups. Indicate how predictors, confounders, and effect modifiers were included in the analysis. Discuss the potential limitations of the study as relevant e. Longitudinal Studies. A longitudinal study involves the observation of the same individuals using the same set of measurements or attributes at multiple times or occasions.

This multiple observational structure may be combined with other research designs, including those with and without experimental manipulations, randomized clinical trials, or any other study type.

Reporting standards for longitudinal studies must combine those for the basic underlying study structure with those specific to a longitudinal study. Thus, in addition to the information dictated by the underlying structure of the study, report information about the longitudinal aspects of the study. For example, describe sample recruitment and retention methods, including attrition at each wave of data collection and how any missing data were handled. Describe any contextual changes that occurred during the progress of the study e.

Report any changes in instrumentation that occurred over the course of the study, such as a change in level of a measure of school achievement. Because longitudinal studies are often reported in a segmental fashion, report where any portions of the data have been previously published and the degree of overlap with the current report see Section 1. N-of-1 Studies. Studies with N-of-1 designs occur in several different forms; however, the essential feature of all these designs is that the unit of study is a single entity usually a person.

In some N-of-1 studies, several individual results are described, and consistency of results may be a central point of the discussion. No N-of-1 study, however, combines the results from several cases e. Describe the design type e. Indicate whether and how randomization was used. For a replication article see Section 1. Provide comparisons between the original study and the replication being reported so readers can evaluate the degree to which there may be factors present that would contribute to any differences between the findings of the original study and the findings of the replication being reported.

Report results of the same analytic methods statistical or other quantitative manipulations used in the original study, as well as any results from additional or different analyses. Report in detail the rules e. Other researchers may need additional information to evaluate the conclusions the authors have drawn or to replicate the analysis with their own data. Structural Equation Modeling. Structural equation modeling is a family of statistical techniques that involve the specification of a structural or measurement model.

The analysis involves steps that estimate the effects represented in the model parameters and evaluate the extent of correspondence between the model and the data. These standards are complex and call for a comprehensive description of data preparation, Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish specification of the initial model s , estimation, model fit assessment, respecification of the model s , and reporting of results.

Bayesian Techniques. Bayesian techniques are inferential statistical procedures in which researchers estimate parameters of an underlying distribution on the basis of the observed distribution. These standards are complex and address the needs of this analytic approach, including how to specify the model, describe and plot the distributions, describe the computation of the model, report any Bayes factors, and report Bayesian model averaging.

These standards are specific to meta-analyses but can easily generalize to other quantitative research synthesis approaches. One feature of meta-analyses that makes them different in reporting demands from other study types is that the units of analysis are research reports—usually articles that have been published or archived.

The primary features of the included studies are numerical estimates of the effect sizes of the phenomena of interest. The reporting standards for quantitative meta-analyses are complex and include how to describe study selection, study inclusion and exclusion criteria, and data collection, as well as how to summarize the selected studies and their characteristics e. Standards specific to quantitative and mixed methods research are presented in Sections 3.

The basic expectations for reporting qualitative research are presented in Table 3. An additional table on the JARS website describes the reporting standards for qualitative meta-analyses see Section 3. There are many qualitative procedures and methods as well as many designs and approaches to inquiry in which they can be embedded; because of this variation, all the elements described in Table 3. Table 3. Author Note Acknowledge funding sources or contributors.

Acknowledge conflicts of interest, if any. Identify five keywords. Guidance for Authors Consider including at least one keyword that describes the method and one that describes the types of participants or phenomena under investigation. Consider describing your approach to inquiry when it will facilitate the review process and intelligibility of your paper. If your work is not grounded in a specific approach to inquiry or your approach would be too complicated to explain in the allotted word count, however, it would not be advisable to provide explication on this point in the abstract.

Guidance for Reviewers The introduction may include case examples, personal narratives, vignettes, or other illustrative material. State the target audience, if specific. Describe the approach to inquiry, if it illuminates the objectives and research rationale e. Guidance for Reviewers Qualitative studies often legitimately need to be divided into multiple manuscripts because of journal article page limitations, but each manuscript should have a separate focus.

Qualitative studies tend not to identify hypotheses, but rather research questions and goals. Method Research Design Overview Summarize the research design, including data-collection strategies, data-analytic strategies, and, if illuminating, approaches to inquiry e.

Provide the rationale for the design selected. Guidance for Reviewers Method sections can be written in a chronological or narrative format. Although authors provide a method description that other investigators should be able to follow, it is not required that other investigators arrive at the same conclusions but rather that the method description leads other investigators to conclusions with a similar degree of methodological integrity.

At times, elements may be relevant to multiple sections and authors need to organize what belongs in each subsection in order to describe the method coherently and reduce redundancy. For instance, the overview and the objectives statement may be presented in one section. Processes of qualitative research are often iterative versus linear, may evolve through the inquiry process, and may move between data collection and analysis in multiple formats. As a result, data collection and analysis sections might be combined.

For the reasons stated previously and because qualitative methods often are adapted and combined creatively, requiring detailed description and rationale, an average qualitative Method section typically is longer than an average quantitative Method section. Guidance for Reviewers Researchers differ in the extensiveness of reflexive self-description in reports. It may not be possible for authors to estimate the depth of description desired by reviewers without guidance.

Describe existing data sources, if relevant e. Provide data repository information for openly shared data, if applicable. Describe archival searches or process of locating data for analyses, if applicable. Describe any incentives or compensation, and provide assurance of relevant ethical processes of data collection and consent process as relevant may include institutional review board approval, particular adaptations for vulnerable populations, safety monitoring. Describe the process by which the number of participants was determined in relation to the study design.

Describe the rationale for decision to halt data collection e. Convey the study purpose as portrayed to participants, if different from the purpose stated. Some authors will determine a selection process and then develop a recruitment method based on those criteria. Other authors will develop a recruitment process and then select participants responsively in relation to evolving findings. Guidance for Reviewers There is no agreed-upon minimum number of participants for a qualitative study.

Rather, the author should provide a rationale for the number of participants chosen. Provide the general context for the study when data were collected, sites of data collection. If your participant selection is from an archived data set, describe the recruitment and selection process from that data set as well as any decisions in selecting sets of participants from that data set.

Guidance for Authors A statement can clarify how the number of participants fits with practices in the design at hand, recognizing that transferability of findings in qualitative research to other contexts is based in developing deep and contextualized understandings that can be applied by readers rather than quantitative estimates of error and generalizations to populations. Describe the origins or evolution of the data-collection protocol. Describe any alterations of data-collection strategy in response to the evolving findings or the study rationale.

Describe the data-selection or data-collection process e. Convey the extensiveness of engagement e. For interview and written studies, indicate the mean and range of the time duration in the datacollection process e. Describe the management or use of reflexivity in the data-collection process, as it illuminates the study.

Describe questions asked in data collection: content of central questions, form of questions e. It may not be useful for researchers to reproduce all of the questions they asked in an interview, especially in the case of unstructured or semistructured interviews as questions are adapted to the content of each interview. Explicate in detail the process of analysis, including some discussion of the procedures e.

Describe coders or analysts and their training, if not already described in the researcher description section e. Identify whether coding categories emerged from the analyses or were developed a priori. Identify units of analysis e. Describe the process of arriving at an analytic scheme, if applicable e.

Provide illustrations and descriptions of the analytic scheme development, if relevant. Indicate software, if used. Guidance for Authors Provide rationales to illuminate analytic choices in relation to the study goals. Guidance for Reviewers Researchers may use terms for data analysis that are coherent within their research approach and process e. Descriptions should be provided, however, in accessible terms in relation to the readership.

The procedures that support methodological integrity i. Issues of methodological integrity include the following: Assess the adequacy of the data in terms of the ability to capture forms of diversity most relevant to the question, research goals, and inquiry approach. Demonstrate that findings are grounded in the evidence e. Demonstrate that the contributions are insightful and meaningful e. Provide relevant contextual information for findings e.

Present findings in a coherent manner that makes sense of contradictions or disconfirming evidence in the data e. Demonstrate consistency with regard to the analytic processes e.

If alterations in methodological integrity were made for ethical reasons, explicate those reasons and the adjustments made. Describe how support for claims was supplemented by any checks added to the qualitative analysis. Approaches to inquiry have different traditions in terms of using checks and which checks are most valued. Describe research findings e. Demonstrate the analytic process of reaching findings e. Present synthesizing illustrations e.

Photographs or links to videos can be used. Guidance for Authors Findings presented in an artistic manner e. Use quotes or excerpts to augment data description e. Guidance for Reviewers Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish The Findings section tends to be longer than in quantitative papers because of the demonstrative rhetoric needed to permit the evaluation of the analytic procedure. Discussion Discussion Subsections Describe the central contributions and their significance in advancing disciplinary understandings.

Describe the types of contributions made by findings e. Identify similarities and differences from prior theories and research findings. Reflect on any alternative explanations of the findings. Describe the limits of the scope of transferability e.

Revisit any ethical dilemmas or challenges that were encountered, and provide related suggestions for future researchers. Consider the implications for future research, policy, or practice. Guidance for Reviewers Accounts could lead to multiple solutions rather than a single one. Many qualitative approaches hold that there may be more than one valid and useful set of findings from a given data set.

Authors must decide how sections should be organized within the context of their specific study. For example, qualitative researchers may combine the Results and Discussion sections because they may not find it possible to separate a given finding from its interpreted meaning within a broader context. As long as the necessary information is present, the paper does not need to be segmented into the same sections and subsections as a quantitative paper.

Qualitative papers may appear different from quantitative papers because they tend to be longer. This added length is due to the following central features of qualitative reporting: a In place of referencing statistical analyses, researchers must include detailed rationales and procedural descriptions to explain how an analytic method was selected, applied, and adapted to fit each specific question or context; b researchers must include a discussion of their own backgrounds and beliefs and how they managed them throughout the study; and c researchers must show how they moved from Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish their raw data to develop findings by adding quoted materials or other demonstrative evidence into their presentation of results.

Because qualitative articles need to be lengthier to provide the information necessary to support an adequate review, limitations on length should be more flexible than they are for quantitative articles, which may not need to include this information.

When journal page limits conflict with the length of a qualitative paper, qualitative researchers should work with journal editors to reach a solution that enables an adequate review of the paper in question.

Research Design Overview. The Method section of a qualitative article begins with a paragraph that summarizes the research design. It might mention the data-collection strategies, data-analytic strategies, and approaches to inquiry and provide a brief rationale for the design selected if this was not described in the objectives section of the introduction see Section 3.

Researcher Description. To situate the investigation within the expectations, identities, and positions of the researchers e. Participants or Other Data Sources. When describing participants or data sources, the following information should be reported: number of participants, documents, or events that were analyzed; demographic or Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish cultural information relevant to the research topic; and perspectives of participants and characteristics of data sources relevant to the research topic.

As applicable, data sources should be described e. Information about data repositories used for openly shared data should be reported if used. The processes entailed in performing archival searches or locating data for analysis should be described as well. Qualitative researchers should report participant characteristics listed in Section 3.

The descriptions of participant characteristics should be sensitive to the participants and the ways in which they understand and express their identities, statuses, histories, and so forth. Chapter 5 contains further guidance on writing about participant characteristics without bias. In addition to participant characteristics and personal history factors, other features within a study may influence the experience of a given phenomenon e.

In this way, reporting considerations may be experientially, theoretically, and empirically driven. Researcher—Participant Relationships. To increase transparency, describe the relationships and interactions between researchers and participants that are relevant to the research process and any impact on the research process e. Existing relationships may be helpful e. Participant Recruitment. There is no minimum number of participants for a qualitative study see Levitt et al.

Authors should provide a rationale for the number of participants chosen, often in light of the method or approach to inquiry that is used. Some studies begin with researchers recruiting participants to the study and then selecting participants from the pool that responds.

Other studies begin with researchers selecting a type of participant pool and then recruiting from within that pool. Specifically, participant selection might follow participant recruitment or vice versa; thus, discussion of the number of participants is likely to be placed in reference to whichever process came second. Recruitment Process. Report the method of recruitment e.

For instance, researchers might describe a broader study aim to participants e. Provide details on any incentives or compensation given to participants, and state relevant ethical processes of data collection and consent, potentially describing institutional review board approval, any adaptations for vulnerable populations, or safety monitoring practices.

Present the process for determining the number of participants in relation to the study design e. Any changes in this number through attrition e. Participant Selection. This selection process can consist of purposive sampling methods, such as maximum variation; convenience sampling methods, such as snowball selection; theoretical sampling; or diversity sampling.

Provide the general context for your study e. If you selected participants from an archived data set, describe the recruitment and selection process for that data set and any decisions affecting the selection of participants from that data set.

Data Collection. Data-Collection or Identification Procedures. In addition to describing the form of data collected e. It may not be useful to reproduce all of the questions asked in an interview, especially in the case of unstructured or semi-structured interviews in which questions are adapted to the content of each interview. The content of central or guiding questions should be communicated, however, and the format of the questions can be described e.

Describe the process of data selection or data collection e. Describe the management or use of reflexivity in the datacollection process when it illuminates the study. Recording and Data Transformation. Identify how data were recorded for analysis and explain whether and how data were transformed. This might include a statement regarding audio or visual recording methods, field notes, or transcription.

The two primary topics to report in the description of qualitative analyses are the data analysis and the establishment of methodological Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish integrity. Researchers may use terms for data analysis that are coherent within their research approach and process e. Descriptions should be provided, however, in terms that are accessible to readers.

Data-Analytic Strategies. Describe the methods and procedures of data analysis and the purpose or goal for which they were used. Explain in detail the process of analysis. Describe the process of arriving at an analytic approach e. Also include a discussion of analytic procedures e.

In this description, identify units of analysis e. Indicate whether any categories or codes emerged from the analyses or were developed a priori, and outline the process used in each case. Provide illustrations and descriptions of their development, if relevant. Methodological Integrity. Highlight procedures that support methodological integrity throughout the paper or summarize central points in a separate section of the Method section when elaboration or emphasis would be helpful for more on methodological integrity, see Levitt et al.

Demonstrate that the claims made from the analysis are warranted. Highlight key features of methodological integrity, as follows: adequacy: Assess the adequacy of the data in terms of their ability to capture forms of diversity most relevant to the research questions, research goals, and inquiry approach. Support for claims of methodological integrity may be supplemented by any checks added to the qualitative analysis.

The following are examples of supplemental checks that can strengthen the research: transcripts or data returned to participants for feedback; triangulation across multiple sources of information, findings, or investigators; checks on interview thoroughness or interviewer demands; consensus or auditing processes; member checks or participant feedback on findings; data displays or matrices; in-depth thick description, case examples, and illustrations; structured methods of researcher reflexivity e.

Descriptions of results often include quotes, evidence, or excerpts that demonstrate the process of data analysis and of reaching findings e. These should not replace the description of the findings of the analysis, however. Instead, balance these illustrations with text descriptions that make clear the meanings drawn from individual quotes or excerpts and how they answer the study question. Compatibility With Study Design.

Findings should be presented in a manner that is compatible with the study design. For instance, findings of a grounded theory study might be described using categories organized in a hierarchical form and marked by discrete divisions, whereas findings of an ethnographic study might be written in a chronological narrative format. Also, findings should be written in a style that is coherent with the approach to inquiry used. Depictions of Findings. Qualitative findings can be presented in various ways.

Illustrations e. Photographs or links to videos can be used as well see Sections 2. Findings presented in an artistic manner e. In this process, the interpretations of the findings are described in a way that takes into account the limitations of the study as well as plausible alternative explanations. The Discussion section conveys applications of your findings and provides directions for future investigators.

If you present multiple studies, discuss the findings in the order in which they are presented within the paper. Interpreting the Meaning of Your Findings. To do this, describe the central contributions of your research and their significance in advancing disciplinary understandings. Identifying similarities and differences from prior theories and research findings will help in this process. Describe the contributions the findings make e. Reflect on any alternative explanations of the findings to clarify the strengths and weaknesses of the explanation that you selected.

More than one valid or useful set of findings may emerge from a given data set. It is not considered a drawback for there to be more than one possible interpretation because researchers may centralize different processes or perspectives; however, findings should remain grounded in the empirical analysis of the data.

Include a subsection to identify the strengths and limitations of the study e. Within this subsection, describe the limits of the scope of generalizability or transferability e. Convey to readers how your findings might be used and their implications. In this process, you might outline emerging research questions, theoretical insights, new understandings, or methodological designs that advantage the conceptualization, implementation, review, or Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish reporting of future studies.

In addition, implications for policy, clinical practice, and advocacy can be communicated to assist readers in implementing your findings.

Two features of qualitative meta-analysis reporting highlighted in this section are reporting on the aggregative process and reporting situatedness. Reporting on the Aggregative Process. The methodological integrity of the results of meta-analyses rests largely on the extent to which those carrying out the analysis can detail and defend the choices they made of studies to review and the process they undertook to weigh and integrate the findings of the studies.

Authors of meta-analyses often aggregate qualitative studies from multiple methodological or theoretical approaches, and they must communicate the approaches of the studies they reviewed as well as their own approach to secondary data analysis. Qualitative meta-analysis involves the interpretive aggregation of thematic findings rather than reanalysis of primary data. Forms of qualitative meta-analysis range on a continuum from assessing the ways findings do or do not replicate each other to arranging interpreted findings into narrative accounts that relate the studies to one another.

Authors of meta-analyses enhance their fidelity to the findings by considering the contradictions and ambiguities within and across studies. Reporting Situatedness. Another factor that distinguishes qualitative metaanalyses from primary qualitative analyses is that they often include an examination of the situatedness of the authors of the primary studies reviewed e.

See the online table for complete information on reporting qualitative meta-analyses. The basic expectations for reporting mixed methods research are presented in Table 3. Standards specific to quantitative and qualitative research are presented in Sections 3.

Guidance for Authors Refrain from using words that are either qualitative e. Reference the mixed methods, qualitative methods, and quantitative methods used.

Guidance for Authors Specify the type of mixed methods design used. See the note on types of designs in the Research Design Overview section of this table. Consider using one keyword that describes the type of mixed methods design and one that describes the problem addressed.

Describe your approach es to inquiry and, if relevant, how intersecting approaches to inquiry are combined when this description will facilitate the review process and intelligibility of your paper.

If your work is not grounded in a specific approach es to inquiry or your approach would be too complicated to explain in the allotted word count, however, it would not be advisable to provide explication on this point in the abstract. Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish Guidance for Authors This section may convey barriers in the literature that suggest a need for both qualitative and quantitative data. Guidance for Reviewers Theory or conceptual framework use in mixed methods varies depending on the specific mixed methods design or procedures used.

Theory may be used inductively or deductively or both in mixed methods research. Order these goals to reflect the type of mixed methods design used. Describe the ways approaches to inquiry were combined, as it illuminates the objectives and mixed methods rationale e.

Guidance for Reviewers A mixed methods objective, aim, or goal may not be familiar to reviewers. For instance, the goal of a qualitative phase could be the development of a conceptual model, the goal of a quantitative phase could be hypothesis testing based upon that model, and the goal of the mixed methods phase could be to generate integrated support for a theory based upon quantitative and qualitative evidence.

Identify the type of mixed methods design used and define it. Indicate the qualitative approach to inquiry and the quantitative design used within the mixed methods design type e. If multiple approaches to inquiry were combined, describe how this was done and provide a rationale e.

Provide a rationale or justification for the need to collect both qualitative and quantitative data and the added value of integrating the results findings from the two data sets. Guidance for Reviewers Because mixed methods research is a relatively new methodology, it is helpful to provide a definition of it from a major reference in the field.

Mixed methods research involves rigorous methods, both qualitative and quantitative. Refer to the qualitative and quantitative standards for details of rigor. One of the most widely discussed topics in the mixed methods literature would be research designs.

There is not a generic mixed methods design but rather multiple types of designs. Basic, core designs include convergent design, explanatory sequential design, and exploratory sequential design. Although the names and types of designs may differ among mixed methods writers, a common understanding is that the procedures for conducting a mixed methods study may differ from one project to another.

Further, these basic procedures can be expanded by linking mixed methods to other designs e. When data are collected from multiple sources, clearly identify the sources of qualitative and quantitative data e.

State the data sources in the order of procedures used in the design type e. Guidance for Authors Because multiple sources of data are collected, separate descriptions of samples are needed when they differ. A table of qualitative sources and quantitative sources is helpful. This table could include type of data, when data were collected, and from whom. Describe the qualitative and the quantitative sampling in separate sections. Relate the order of the sections to the procedures used in the mixed methods design type.

Discuss the recruitment strategy for qualitative and quantitative research separately. Devote separate sections to the qualitative data analysis, the quantitative data analysis, and the mixed methods analysis. Indicate methodological integrity, quantitative validity and reliability, and mixed methods validity or legitimacy.

Further assessments of mixed methods integrity are also indicated to show the quality of the research process and the inferences drawn from the intersection of the quantitative and qualitative data. Guidance for Authors In mixed methods research, the Findings section typically includes sections on qualitative findings, quantitative results, and mixed methods results.

This section should mirror the type of mixed methods design in terms of sequence i. This enables researchers to directly compare results or to see how results differ between the quantitative and qualitative strands.

It also reflects on the implications of the integrated findings from across the two methods. In mixed methods research, the thoughtful integration of qualitative findings and quantitative results leads to a deeper understanding of the data and enhanced insights.

In addition, authors can publish multiple papers from a single mixed methods study, such as a qualitative study paper, a quantitative study paper, and a mixed methods overview paper. Incorporating Both Quantitative and Qualitative Standards. The thoughtful and robust use of mixed methods requires researchers to meet the standards of both quantitative and qualitative research methodology in the design, implementation, and reporting stages.

Typically, additional mixed methods standards also need to be met along with quantitative and qualitative standards. Reflecting on the Gains From Integration.

The standards for mixed methods designs emphasize the need to not only present both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the research but also describe their integration throughout the sections of the paper. The mixed methods guidelines assist authors in describing the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods.

Authors should convey not only how the qualitative and quantitative methods contribute to the study goals but also how they enhance one another to provide a greater depth of understanding or further the research aims. The JARS website has additional tables for other research designs, including experimental e.

Establishing a tone that conveys the essential points of your work in an interesting way will engage readers and communicate your ideas effectively. Precise, clear word choice and sentence structure also contribute to the creation of a substantive, impactful work. In this chapter, we provide guidance on achieving the four qualities of effective scholarly writing: continuity, flow, conciseness, and clarity. This is followed by general rules for grammar and usage and suggested strategies for improving your writing.

Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish Effective Scholarly Writing Being able to communicate ideas clearly and succinctly is a recipe for success for all writers, be they students submitting assignments to their instructor or professionals submitting manuscripts to a journal. Effective scholarly writing balances continuity and flow with conciseness and clarity.

By implementing the techniques and principles described in Sections 4. Inconsistencies, contradictions, omissions, and irrelevancies in your writing style and presentation of ideas can make your arguments seem less credible. A work that lacks continuity and flow may seem disorganized or confusing, and details may seem incomplete or inconsistent. Readers will better understand your ideas if you aim for continuity in words, concepts, and thematic development from the opening statement to the conclusion.

Explain relationships between ideas clearly, and present ideas in a logical order to improve the readability of your paper. When editing your writing, use additional transitional devices to make it less choppy. Text that sounds choppy or disjointed may indicate that you have abandoned an argument or theme prematurely—instead consider amplifying its discussion. Punctuation marks contribute to continuity and flow by signaling transitions and demonstrating relationships between ideas.

They also reflect the pauses, inflections, subordination, and pacing normally heard in speech. Use the full range of punctuation. Neither overuse nor underuse one type of punctuation, such as commas or dashes: Overuse may annoy readers, whereas underuse may cause confusion.

Instead, use punctuation to support meaning. Likewise, transitional words and phrases help maintain the flow of ideas, especially when the material is complex or abstract. For example, using a pronoun that refers to a noun in the preceding sentence not only serves as a transition but also avoids repetition. Be sure the referent is obvious. Writers often overuse adverbs, so ask yourself whether the introduction or transition is needed.

Although skillful hyphenation can clarify the relationships between words, often the best option is to untangle the string.

One approach to untangling is to move the final noun earlier in the string and show relationships between the other nouns by using verbs and prepositions. Authors seeking publication and students completing assignments increase their chances of success when they write concisely. Likewise, writing that is clear and precise is more accurate and transparent. In combination, conciseness and clarity in your writing ensure that readers understand your meaning.

Some writers may fear that writing concisely will make their papers too short. If your paper is too short when written concisely, your ideas and themes may need to be further developed to add substance.

Where possible, tighten language to eliminate wordiness, redundancy see Section 4. Shorten or eliminate overly detailed descriptions of equipment or apparatus, participants, or procedures beyond those called for in journal article reporting standards; see Chapter 3 ; elaborations of the obvious; and irrelevant observations or asides.

Information that would cause the paper to be too long and is not essential to understanding the research—but would nonetheless be helpful to a subset of readers—may be placed, when appropriate, in supplemental materials see Section 2. Short words and short sentences are easier to comprehend than long ones see Section 4. A long technical term, however, may be more precise than several short words, and technical terms are inseparable from scientific reporting.

However, a paper with too much jargon or terminology familiar to only a few specialists does not sufficiently contribute to the literature because its meaning is obfuscated see Section 4. Rather, the technical terms in a paper should be either readily understood by readers across disciplines or defined for readers who may be unfamiliar with them. Be deliberate in your word choices, making certain that every word means exactly what you intend. Likewise, using a word with multiple meanings can cause confusion.

Choose words and phrases carefully, and specify the intended meaning if there is potential for ambiguity. If you use a word or phrase multiple times, do so consistently e. Some writers deliberately use synonyms or nearsynonyms to avoid repeating a word or phrase. The intention is commendable, but in practice the use of synonyms can lead to imprecision: By using synonyms, you may unintentionally suggest a subtle difference.

Therefore, use synonyms with care. Word choice is especially important when talking about people who are members of specific groups, such as in a Method section. Carefully consider the descriptors you use, making sure they are accurate, consistent with current preferred terminology, and in line with how the individuals you are writing about describe themselves.

In no case should you use biased, pejorative, or demeaning language see Chapter 5 for guidelines on using bias-free language.

Strive for a professional tone and professional language see Sections 4. Use metaphors sparingly; although they can help simplify complicated ideas, metaphors can also be distracting or unclear. Avoid mixed metaphors e. Use figurative expressions with restraint and colorful expressions with care; because these expressions can be open to interpretation and even cultural differences, they generally do not add to understanding for all possible readers.

Instead, make direct, logical comparisons see Section 4. Unconstrained wordiness lapses into embellishment and flowery writing, which are inappropriate in academic style. Consider the following examples of wordy and concise language: Wordy Concise at the present time now for the purpose of for, to there were several students who completed several students completed Whereas wordiness refers to using more words than are necessary, redundancy means using multiple words with the same meaning.

Writers often use redundant language to be emphatic. Instead, use sentence structure to convey emphasis, for example, by placing the words to be emphasized at the beginning or end of a sentence.

When possible and appropriate for the context, use the active voice see Section 4. In the following examples, the highlighted words are redundant and should be omitted: they were both alike one and the same a sum total in close proximity to four different groups saw completely unanimous were exactly the same as positioned very close absolutely essential period of time has been previously found summarize briefly small in size the reason is because 4.

Overuse of short, simple sentences produces choppy prose, however, and overuse of long, involved sentences results in difficult, sometimes incomprehensible, Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish language. Varied sentence length helps readers maintain interest and comprehension.

When involved concepts require long sentences, the components should proceed logically. Avoid including multiple ideas in a single sentence; instead, break the sentence into shorter ones.

Direct, declarative sentences with simple, common words are usually best. Similar cautions apply to paragraph length. Single-sentence paragraphs are abrupt and should be used infrequently. Paragraphs that are too long i. A new paragraph signals a shift to a new idea and provides a pause for readers—a chance to assimilate one step in the conceptual development before beginning another.

Look for a logical place or places to break up a long paragraph or reorganize the material. When writing a scholarly paper, keep in mind that scientific prose and creative or literary writing serve different purposes. Devices that are often used in creative writing—for example, setting up ambiguity; inserting the unexpected; omitting the expected; and suddenly shifting the topic, tense, or person—do not support the objective of clear communication in scientific writing.

Similarly, devices or embellishments that attract attention to words and sounds instead of to ideas are inappropriate in scientific writing. Thus, when describing your research, present the ideas and findings in a direct, straightforward manner, while also aiming for an interesting and compelling style—for example, by fully elaborating on an idea or concept see Section 4.

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WebNov 9,  · APA 7th Edition Referencing and Citation Quick Guide (Tabulated by Types) November Authors: Kee-Man Chuah University Malaysia Sarawak Abstract This table serves as the summary of the. WebNov 10,  · The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition is the official source for APA Style. With millions of copies sold worldwide in multiple languages, it is the style manual of choice for writers, researchers, editors, students, and educators in the social and behavioral sciences, natural sciences, nursing, . WebAPA Manual section 9) Since there are many types of sources, only some of the most commonly used are included in this handout. For more citation help with sources and for exceptions consult The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition or the Purdue Online Writing Lab. Book (, ) Include.