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Metropolitan Museum Cleveland Museum of Art. Internet Arcade Console Living Room. An understanding of the chemical reaction is the basis for preventing fires, as well as extinguishing fires once they initiate. A working knowledge of basic fire science and chemistry is essential for developing and implementing a successful fire safety program.

There are many variables that can affect a fire. Effective fire safety management programs control the variables that can affect a fire. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the variables. A fire is self-sustained oxidation of a fuel that emits heat and light Factory Mutual Engineering Corporation, A fire requires three variables to initiate: a fuel, oxygen, and heat.

In order to initiate a fire, fuel, oxygen, and heat are required. These three variables form the fire triangle as shown in Figure 2. To further understand the fire triangle, it is necessary to analyze what influence each side of the fire triangle has in the combustion process. For the safety manager, this analysis is the key for understanding the concept of fire prevention. Fire preven- tion attempts to prevent fuels, oxygen, and heat from combining to start a fire.

Fire prevention strategies include controlling fuels, controlling oxygen sources, and con- trolling heat sources. A discussion of fuels, oxygen, and heat sources follows. Fuel A fuel is a combustible solid, liquid, or gas. Like in any chemical reaction, a source of energy is needed to sustain the heat required. The most common solid fuels are wood, paper, cloth, coal, and so forth.

Flammable and combustible liquids include gasoline, fuel oil, paint, kerosene, and other similar materials. Propane, acetylene, and natural gas are some examples of gases that are flammable. Solid and liquid fuels share a common characteristic; they must be converted into a gas in order to support combustion. Some liquid fuels can undergo direct oxidation because they produce vapors at ambient temperatures and pressures.

Other liquid fuels and solid fuels, however, undergo sequential oxidation. Fire Chemistry 13 This means that a fuel must be heated first to produce sufficient concentrations of gas to support combustion. From a fire safety standpoint, the safety manager should be aware of the different types of fuels located in the workplace. The ease of ignition of a solid fuel is dependent on several factors. The most important factor is the surface to mass ratio of the fuel. The safety manager should be concerned with two things regard- ing the surface to mass ratio of a fuel.

First, the more surface area that is exposed, the easier it is for a fire to initiate and the more rapidly it can burn. Second, the more mass that a solid fuel has, the more difficult it will be to initiate and sustain combus- tion.

Consider cotton as a fuel in a textile mill. Cotton dusts and lint will burn easier and faster than a tightly bound bale of cotton. Liquid fuels are affected by several factors. Chapter 4 explores these factors in detail.

The flash point refers to the tem- perature at which adequate vapors are produced to form an ignitable mixture in air. Therefore, a liquid heated to a temperature at or above its flash point will ignite in the presence of an ignition source such as a spark, cigarette, hot surface, or open flame. During combus- tion, the oxygen necessary for oxidation is sufficiently provided from the surround- ing air. Oxygen can also be provided by other sources that release oxygen molecules during a chemical reaction.

The safety manager should be aware of these oxidizers in the workplace and segregate them from any fuels. Heat The safety manager should be concerned with sources of heat commonly found in the workplace. This is a concern because sources of heat provide the energy neces- sary to initiate combustion. By preventing heat sources from contacting the ignitable fuel-air mixtures, fires can be effectively prevented from occurring.

Conduction occurs when two bodies are touching one another and heat is transferred from molecule to molecule. Convection is the transfer of heat through a circulating medium rather than by direct contact. The medium can be either a gas or a liquid. Radiation is the transfer of electromagnetic waves through any medium. For the safety manager, recognizing how heat can be transferred in the workplace is helpful for preventing fires. Once a fire begins, it requires four variables to sustain the combustion reaction.

The four variables required to sus- tain a fire are fuel, oxygen, heat, and chemical chain reactions. These four variables represent the fire tetrahedron. The fire tetrahedron is represented in Figure 2. Chemical chain reactions are a product of the combustion process. The chemi- cal reactions ultimately produce combustion byproducts such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbon, and other molecules, depending on the specific fuel.

It is these byproducts of combustion found in the smoke that usually affect the safety and health of occupants and fire fighters.

Once a fire begins and is self-sustaining, the goal is to control and extinguish the fire. Fire extinguishment is done by eliminating one of the variables of the fire tetrahedron.

By removing the fuel, oxygen, or heat, or inhibiting the chemical chain reactions, a fire can be extinguished. The concept of fire protection assumes fires will occur, and focuses on controlling fires by eliminating or otherwise controlling the variables of the fire tetrahedron.

The concept of fire prevention differs from fire protection because fire prevention attempts to control the variables of the fire triangle before a fire occurs.

Fire Chemistry 15 As mentioned, four fire extinguishing principles exist. They are highlighted below Bryan, Control the fuel—Controlling the fuel is accomplished by two methods. First, the fuel can be physically removed or separated from the fire. For instance, a fire involving stacks of wood pallets could be controlled by removing any exposed stacks of pallets to a safe location.

Another example is closing a valve feeding a gas or flammable liquid fire. Second, the fuel can be chemically affected by diluting the fuel. The oxygen supply to a fire can be inhibited by smothering the fire.

Smothering a fire places a barrier between the flame and the atmosphere. This can be accomplished with a blanket or apply- ing a layer of foam to form a vapor barrier. Displacing and reducing the oxygen concentration involves applying an inert gas to the fire, such as carbon dioxide.

The carbon dioxide displaces the oxygen thus lowering the concentration to a level that cannot sustain the fire. Applying an inert gas to a fire requires that the fire be located in a confined space. Personnel must be aware that displacing the oxygen or diluting the oxygen concentra- tion affects their ability to breathe.

Fire extinguishment using this method requires that personnel be absent from the confined area or protected by self-contained breathing apparatus. Control the heat—Controlling the heat requires that the heat be absorbed. Combustion is an exothermic chemical reaction. If the heat emitted by the reaction can be absorbed faster than the reaction can produce the heat, then the reaction cannot be sustained.

Water is the most common extinguishing agent. Water is also the most efficient extinguishing agent because it has the capability to absorb immense amounts of heat. Inhibit the chemical chain reactions—Inhibiting the chemical chain reac- tions requires that a chemical agent be introduced into the fire. Certain chemical agents can interfere with the sequence of reactions by absorb- ing free radicals from one sequence that are needed to complete the next sequence. Dry chemical extinguishing agents commonly used in portable fire extinguishers have this ability.

Chapter 7 describes these applications in more detail. Fires are classified into categories so personnel can quickly choose appropriate extinguishing agents for the expected fire and associated hazards. Fires are classified into five general classes. Water is usually the best extinguishing agent because it can penetrate fuels and absorb heat.

Dry chemicals used to interrupt the chemical chain reactions are also effective on Class A fires. Extinguishing agents that smother the fire or reduce the oxygen concentration available to the burn- ing zone are most effective.

Common extinguishing agents include foam, carbon dioxide, and dry chemicals. Noncon- ductive extinguishing agents are necessary to extinguish Class C fires. Dry chemicals and inert gases are the most effective agents. If it can be done safely, personnel should isolate the power to electrical equipment before attempting to extinguish a fire.

Once electrical equipment is de-energized, it is considered a Class A fire. Class D fires require special extinguishing agents that are usually produced for the specific metal. Class K fire extinguishers are required in any location that cooks oils, grease, or animal fat.

Any location that fries must have a Class K fire extinguisher. Every commercial kitchen should have a Class K extinguisher located in it to supplement the suppression system.

Fire extinguishers can represent an important aspect of any overall fire protec- tion system. Each stage has its own characteristics and hazards that should be understood by safety managers and fire fighting personnel. Incipient Stage The incipient stage is the first or beginning stage of a fire. In this stage, combus- tion has begun. This stage is identified by an ample supply of fuel and oxygen. Fire Chemistry 17 The products of combustion that are released during this stage normally include water vapor, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide.

Free-Burning Stage The free-burning stage follows the incipient stage. At this point, the self-sustained chemical reaction is intensifying. Greater amounts of heat are emitted and the fuel and oxygen supply is rapidly consumed. In an enclosed compartment, the free-burning stage can become dangerous. Because of the heat intensity, the contents within a compartment are heated.

At some point, if the compartment is not well ventilated, compartment contents will reach their ignition temperature. A flashover occurs when the contents within a compartment simultaneously reach their ignition temperature and become involved in flames. Smoldering Stage The smoldering stage follows the free-burning stage. As a free-burning fire continues to burn, the chemical reaction will eventually consume the available oxygen within the compartment and ultimately convert it into carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.

This causes the oxygen concentration within the compartment to decrease. Visibly, the flames subsist and the fuel begins to glow. A smoldering fire is identified by a sufficient amount of fuels and lower oxygen concentrations. Smoldering fires, especially when insulated within a compartment, can continue the combustion process for hours.

The byproducts of combustion also fill the compartment and human survival is impossible. During the smoldering stage, an extreme hazard, called a backdraft, can develop. A backdraft occurs when oxygen is introduced into a smoldering compartment fire. The immediate availabil- ity of sufficient oxygen in the presence of sufficient fuel, heat, and chemical chain reactions causes flaming combustion again. In some cases, the backdraft is so violent that an explosion will occur. Human survival, even of properly protected fire fighters, is usually not possible.

Identify Class A fires and provide an example. What is the definition of heat? What is the definition of fuel? What are the four elements for ignition to occur? Identify Class B fires and give an example. How much oxygen does a fire need to start the ignition process? How many classes of fires are there? List the types. Explain the chemical chain reaction and when the fire occurs. How can Class B fires be prevented. Identify Class D fires and give an example.

Identify Class C fires and give an example. How can Class A fires be prevented. True or False Every fire extinguisher displays a rating on the faceplate showing the class of fire that it is designed to extinguish.

True or False If you are trapped in a burning building, never use an elevator. Case Studies 1. Locate journal articles for three fires that occurred in the workplace. Locate and list the various types of fuels, oxidizers, and heat sources in your workplace. Identify the fire prevention strategies that could be implemented to reduce the likelihood of a fire occurring. Also, identify the fire protection strategies that could be implemented once a fire does occur.

ASTM Standards. Bryan, John L. Fire Suppression and Extinguishing Systems. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. Building Officials and Code Administrators, Inc. Factory Mutual Engineering Corporation. Handbook of Industrial Loss Prevention, 2nd ed.

Firemanship Training, Section One. Friedman, Raymond. Principles of Fire Protection Chemistry, 2nd ed. Fire Protection Handbook, 17th ed. National Fire Codes. National Safety Council. Booklets on Fire Prevention and Protection. Workplace Safety in Action: Hazard Assessment. Neenah, WI: J. Keller and Associates, Understand the steps that should be taken to develop a fire safety program. List the eight core elements of a fire safety management program.

Explain the importance of a facility evaluation for potential fire sources. Understand how to prioritize fire prevention efforts and steps that can be implemented. Explain the role and importance of a fire brigade—NFPA Explain the various responsibilities of a fire brigade.

Explain the importance of emergency planning and what factors should be considered. Understand the importance of an industrial program. Define the hazards of cutting and welding to include the importance of a hot work permit program. Applying fire safety concepts in a logical fashion is the best method for achieving an effi- cient and cost-effective fire safety management program.

Safety managers should use the Fire Safety Concepts Tree for developing and implementing a fire safety manage- ment program.

Figure 3. This text was written with the Fire Safety Concepts Tree in mind. Individual chapters provide specific information for developing a fire safety management pro- gram utilizing the Fire Safety Concepts Tree. Too often, managers develop programs haphazardly only to wonder why their programs achieve unfavorable results or make little or no impact on an organization.

Safety managers should follow good risk management principles when developing any type of program, especially a fire safety management program. The following sequence should be incorporated into an action plan for developing a fire safety management program: 1. Needs should be translated into program goals related to life safety, property conservation, and business continuity.

Analyze facilities—All of the buildings, structures, and processes located within a facility should be identified and listed. Infrastructure that is crucial to the continued operation of the facility should be given first priority.

Next, priority should be given to replacement value. Analyze fire hazards—The ranked list from the previous step can be refined based upon fire hazards within the facility. Target fire hazards such as pro- cesses, materials, and environments should be considered. Once a list is developed, the fire hazards should also be ranked based upon the likelihood of a fire occurring and the potential severity of a fire.

Develop and implement life safety, fire prevention, and fire protection con- trols—This step is where the Fire Safety Concepts Tree is truly applied. The result should be a written fire safety management program that includes practices and guidelines for fire risk management through facility design, engineered controls, and administrative controls and activities such as self- inspection, training, education, and communication.

Evaluate effectiveness—Once the fire safety management program is implemented, its effectiveness should be evaluated regularly by different organizational levels. Lessons learned should be communicated throughout the organization and improvements made to strengthen weaknesses.

Essential Elements 21 PROGRAM GOALS If an organization is to keep pace with its goals, a proper loss control program requires an effective, well-trained fire brigade, sophisticated detection devices, good house- keeping, and other fire prevention and protection methods included in its programs.

These goals can be accomplished by including key elements such as the following. Set policies and establish plans. Create and sustain employee interest. Plan safe buildings, equipment, and processes. Provide automatic sprinklers and other protective equipment where needed. Maintain protective equipment in readiness. Organize and train employees for emergency action. Contact the local fire service organization and define their responsibilities for assistance.

Using these goals as guidelines for the fire safety management program, the pro- gram structure can be designed as shown in Figure 3. All personnel must participate in a fire safety management program. With innovative methods safety managers can motivate employees to support fire control.

A loss control program demands a well-trained fire brigade, effective detection devices, and good housekeeping. A fire safety management program is divided into eight elements, expressed as performance-based objectives. When objectives are completed, the organization achieves its goals. They are conducted by the safety staff or fire brigade members. Specialized training in fire control equipment and procedures is given to fire brigade members.

A trained fire brigade can contain and extinguish small fires before they grow large. The safety manager develops fire and emergency response plans for the utiliza- tion of these agencies. The agencies can serve as consultants for equipment and regulations training.

A comprehensive fire safety management program is an inherent part of a complete organizational structure. Reports describe the needs of the fire safety management pro- gram, suggested actions, and actions taken to maintain the program. The safety manager should establish a good rapport with the local emergency service providers needed during a fire or emergency.

Local fire department personnel can also be used at a lower cost, sometimes free as a public service. Once the organization has recognized the merit of the evaluation, it is recom- mended that a form be developed to be used in the audit process.

A suggested audit form is shown in Figure 3. The audit process should present data related to 1 approximate area that could be involved in a fire; 2 type of construction, com- bustible or noncombustible; 3 area covered by a sprinkler system; 4 approximate value of building and contents; and 5 relative importance of the building. This information will aid in the identifying and ranking of fire hazards within an organi- zation Firenze, Recommendations Every phase of the program must be considered in an evaluation.

The use of the audit program will emphasize the potential hazards within the organization and show how their programs compare with others. The audit is often difficult, but nonetheless necessary. In this same organization, the safety manager is responsible for formu- lating and establishing a fire safety management program.

The audit must identify the hazards present in the organization Underdown, It is a fact that, even though the development of different procedures will rest with personnel having a great deal of fire protection knowledge, the fire safety management program should be coordinated with other personnel within the organization. Essential Elements 25 delineated responsibilities to the fire safety management program.

Upper manage- ment must state policies in writing to support the program and establish responsibil- ity and authority to administer the program. The safety staff of the organization is responsible for staff assistance to line and service departments in fire prevention, fire protection, and control of emergencies affecting the safety of all individuals.

Middle-management personnel are responsible for participating in fire safety management program activities, reviewing fire hazard and regulation compliance conditions, and supporting the establishment of fire brigades. First, line supervision must know the fire protection systems and how they work in their department, coop- erate fully in emergency assignments made to their people, and set a good example by working safely.

Last, and most important, the line of responsibility lies with the employees themselves. If they are cognizant of their responsibilities to the fire pro- gram, many hazards can be reduced and subsequent fires minimized. It is essential to obtain backing from upper management for program guidelines.

These guidelines will provide the credibility and attention needed to support the fire safety management program Planer, The fire protection guide- lines should include: 1. Incorporation of NFPA codes and standards, OSHA standards, local and state building codes, and requirements for types of building construction necessary for safeguarding life and property.

A schedule for conducting life safety evaluations of all the structures within a facility. Fire protection assessment schedules including assessment frequencies based upon property values and importance to continued operations. Water supply requirements for high-value areas, or facilities requiring two separate water supplies. Fire protection criteria for high-value areas or facilities requiring a primary means of fire protection to be automatic and secondary means to be manual.

Guidelines for protecting special hazards such as computer rooms, hazardous materials, storage warehouses, records archives, and electrical equipment. Frequently, when large organizations have the need to develop numerous and similar facilities i.

The safety manager has the responsibility for delegating authority, while the staff will implement the program. This will include assigning various responsibilities to employees, training and education, and evaluating and updating of the program. The line and staff management must assume the leadership of their own department, as well as carrying out their responsibilities. The employees should be fully aware of the policies of the fire safety management program.

The delegation of responsibili- ties will help ensure that the program will operate efficiently. This ensures that activities and efforts such as self-inspection programs, emergency planning, fire brigades, and fire prevention procedures will be implemented.

Insurance carriers frequently will insure facilities with major fire protection problems where evidence exists that management is responsive to improvements and is organized. Insurers tend to hesitate insuring facilities where management is ineffective at implementing and maintaining basic programs.

This organization, as mentioned, may be of an extremely sophisti- cated nature. A large and valuable facility located in a rural area may require that a sophisticated fire brigade be organized. Conversely, only a small fire brigade that operates portable fire extinguishers may be needed in a facility located in an urban area. A fire brigade should be organized to meet the needs of a specific facility based upon location, the response time of local fire departments, and the value of the facility.

A fire brigade utilizes manual fire fighting methods for fire suppression. This may be considered the entire fire safety effort available to suppress a fire in its early stages. The first objective is to suppress a fire in the event of impairment of automatic protection and to provide extinguishment capabilities where automatic protection is not provided. The point has been demonstrated that a fire brigade will be organized differently for each facility.

Manpower requirements for a fire brigade should be established. Anticipated fires should be postulated and the number of persons deter- mined from anticipated tasks required for fire suppression. Management must decide how it will support the fire brigade in all areas, particularly equipment and training. Essential Elements 27 OSHA requires employers to determine what type of fire brigade they will sup- port. The two types of fire brigades delineated by OSHA are the incipient stage for fire extinguisher use and fire brigades for interior structural fire fighting, which requires personal protective equipment PPE and supplied air apparatus.

The following scenarios outline the types of responses that fire brigades will anticipate for fire abatement. Employees evacuate buildings only—Portable fire extinguishers are not provided. Employers must provide a written emergency action plan, fire prevention plan, training in evacuation, and shut down operations.

Employees evacuate buildings and portable fire extinguishers are provided for specific, trained employees—Employers must meet the requirements in Scenario 1 in addition to maintaining and testing portable fire extinguishers. All employees can use portable fire extinguishers in their immediate work areas—Employers must provide training in extinguisher selection and use to all employees when first hired and annually thereafter. Portable fire extinguishers will be used by designated employees in assigned areas—Employers must provide a written emergency action plan, fire prevention plan, training as in Scenario 3 and in evacuation and shut down operations.

Portable fire extinguishers will be used by the fire brigade to fight fires in the incipient stage only—Employers must have a fire brigade organi- zational statement, provide training annually as in Scenario 3 and specific hazards training for brigade leaders and instructors.

The fire brigade will fight all fires, including interior structural fires— Employers must have a fire brigade organizational statement and policy, require physical examinations of all brigade members, provide OSHA-required per- sonal protective equipment, provide training annually as in Scenario 3 and in specific hazards for brigade leaders and instructors.

It was noted earlier that suc- cess depends on the ability to fill management positions with people whom other people respect. Assistant leaders should demonstrate similar skills, as they are likely to be in charge of the fire brigade during the absence of the leader. Because it is important that the fire brigade be prepared at all times, it is preferable to use mainte- nance employees and other nonproduction employees as fire brigade members rather than those committed to production processes.

The fire brigade organizational structure should be broken into squads. Special duties should be assigned to certain squads such as ensuring that control valves are open or fire pumps are running. In addition to extinguishing fires, individual squads have the responsibility for salvage and handling electrical problems.

Cragg outlines the responsibilities and qualifications for fire brigade mem- bers and leaders. Additionally, the standard covers minimum requirements for brigade members. The job performance requirements for the levels of industrial fire brigade operations are defined in NFPA In addition, a section has been added that addresses the limits and responsibilities of industrial fire brigade members in order to be consistent with NFPA The committee has also added a new chapter to address the qualifica- tions that support members would provide to the industrial fire brigade.

A well developed and rehearsed emergency plan can be the difference for preventing a small emergency from escalating into a catastrophe.

Each organization will have certain inherent hazards along with the usual conditions that should be considered during emergency planning. Insurance carriers and local fire departments are also excellent sources of information for emergency planning. The first step in emergency planning is to recognize and identify the hazards and determine facility vulnerabilities to emergencies.

This can be done by conducting an assessment involving several representatives from different parts of the facility. As discussed previously, the goals are to provide for life safety, conserve property, and assure that business can continue. The potential impact of certain emergencies and the possibilities for long-term interruption of operations should be considered. Emergencies and vulnerabilities should be ranked to prioritize resources later.

The next step is to start planning for the most likely and severe emergencies. The planning process should evaluate the interior layout, escape routes, assembly points, accessibility to fire fighting, ventilation, water supply, detection and alarm systems, communication methods, automatic fire suppression, fire department access, and exposure protection. An emergency plan should detail the duties of personnel and the fire brigade.

The third step in emergency planning is to ensure that the organization can imple- ment the emergency plan. Regular fire drills, fire brigade drills, table-top exercises, and full-scale emergency simulations should be conducted.

This helps ensure that the organization is prepared to respond to emergencies. Rehearsals can also help to identify and correct weaknesses in the emergency plan before an actual emergency.

Therefore, it should devise a means for identifying those potential losses. One way this may be accomplished is by establishing a plant self-inspection program. A plant self-inspection program is often an important factor for obtaining insurance coverage or reasonable insurance premiums.

A self-inspection program should focus on good housekeeping, fire prevention practices, proper maintenance of fire protec- tion features, safe handling of hazardous materials, and other fire safety controls. Personnel conducting self-inspections should be qualified for the tasks involved.

Suggested qualifications might include a maintenance-oriented background; famil- iarity with the physical layout of the facility; membership in the fire brigade; and a working knowledge of those items, areas, or processes being inspected. Each orga- nization should determine its own qualifications. Candidates could be enlisted from the safety staff, management, supervisory staff, or hourly employees.

They should be the type of individuals who possess the necessary knowledge to perform the task in a reliable and effective manner, as well as personal traits such as a good attitude and responsiveness. Once personnel have been selected to perform self-inspection tasks, the frequency of self-inspections must be determined.

This may vary greatly depending on what is being inspected. The frequencies can vary from hourly, to weekly, to annually. A sample monthly inspection report is shown in Figure 3. Several types of inspections are available for inclusion in a self-inspection pro- gram. Each type can be systematic and efficient. The four types of inspection are periodic, intermittent, continuous, and special. Periodic, intermittent, and continuous inspections are particularly useful when incorporated into preventive maintenance programs.

Special inspections can be done when new equipment is installed or during promotional campaigns such as the National Fire Prevention Week. Inspection forms are available from many sources in varying detail for different purposes. Insurance carriers, the NFPA, and consulting organizations all have inspection forms available for self-inspection. Upon identifying deficiencies, it is necessary to notify appropriate personnel to correct the deficiencies.

Any impairment should also be reported. A system for iden- tifying equipment that is out of service for repair should be developed. Such a system might involve tagging. One part of a tag is left on the equipment needing service.

It should be a noticeable color such as red, yellow, or orange. The second part of the tag is sent to the insurance carrier. The third part of the tag is kept by the safety department to indicate that a correction is needed. Make appropriate comments concerning location, specific deficiency, and corrective action taken or required. Major changes in occupancy or construction, as they affect programs, should also be described.

Cutting and welding activities can produce sparks, flames, hot slag, or hot pieces that ignite nearby combustibles. Responsibility for safe cutting and welding rests with the cutter or welder and supervisor Planer, Tasks that involve cutting, welding, or brazing are often termed hot work.

Management should establish procedures for approving hot work: designating an individual responsible for authorizing it, requiring the use of approved equipment, and training personnel in hot work procedures.

The supervisor is responsible for assuring that hot work is conducted safely. A typical method for assuring that hot work is conducted safely is through a hot work permit system.

Issuance of the permit requires that a pretask inspection of the work area be conducted by the authorizing person. A fire watch during hot work is essen- tial. This involves a second person spotting the cutter or welder with a portable fire extinguisher. The idea is that if a small fire is ignited by accident, then the spotter can quickly extinguish the fire before it spreads into a large fire. The hot work area should also be inspected one to two hours following the hot work task to assure that a fire is not smoldering.

The adverse health effects of overexposure to welding fumes and gases include chronic or acute systemic poison- ing, metal fume fever, and pneumoconiosis lung disease due to the accumulation of mineral or metallic particles and irritation of the respiratory tract.

You must make sure that your employees avoid the adverse effects of exposure to fumes. In addition to the health hazards of metal fumes and toxic gases, welding operations include the hazard of burns from flame, arc, molten metal, and heated surfaces and also that of metal splatter.

Additionally, welding operations should require face, eye, and neck protection for all welders against sparks, splatter of molten metal, and radiation of the arc or flame, which is the reason why welders should wear a welding hood or helmet, though in other cases gas welding may be properly done with the proper goggles, gloves, and other protective clothing to protect the arms and neck.

In most cases, complete prohibition is unrealistic, however, careful regulation can achieve the desired results. Smoking regulations should be specific. They should clearly state where employ- ees can smoke and when. Smoking should be prohibited in the presence of flam- mable liquids or gases, combustible dusts, combustible fibers, and substantial storage or processing of combustible materials. See other side. Time started: Completed: Final Check Work area and all adjacent areas to which sparks and heat might have spread including floors above and below and on opposite side of wall s were inspected 30 minutes after the work was completed and were found fire safe.

This reprinted material is not the complete and official position of the National Fire Protection Association on the referenced subject, which is represented only by the standard in its entirety.

Although most smokers are careful, a policy on smoking must be established with the careless smoker in mind. The following are some suggested guidelines. More fires are ignited from careless smoking in storage areas than in any other location. Cartons, packaging, and other combustible materials furnish the fuel needed to initiate a fire.

Modern stacking methods favor rapid fire spread thus exposing highly con- centrated values. Smoking in corridors or open spaces should not be allowed. A policy should also be imposed that smoking must cease 30 minutes before the office or room is vacated for the night and smoking materials must be disposed of in proper receptacles.

No smoking should be strictly enforced. Wrapping and packing materials such as carton flats, newspapers, excelsior, burlap, shred- ded paper, wood bracing, and wooden containers are used in large quanti- ties and provide the fuel for easy ignition. Where smoking is permitted, such as in generally noncombustible plant areas, cafeterias, restrooms, and offices, good house- keeping should be emphasized.

Ashtrays, sand-filled containers, and simi- lar receptacles should be convenient to smokers. They should be designed to prevent contents from falling out and should not be used for the disposal of general rubbish. What are the eight program elements that should be included in a fire safety management program?

What are the responsibilities of each management level to the fire safety management program? Discuss the formation of emergency plans. What are some specific areas that are inspected where pumps or sprinkler systems are concerned? Who is responsible for safe cutting and welding practices? What specific work areas of an industry should be focused upon when con- trolling smoking?

What are the goals of an effective loss control program? What effect does the organizational structure have upon the fire safety management program? List some of the responsibilities of a fire brigade, fire brigade members, and the brigade chief. List some of the items included in the protocol for welding and cutting.

Develop an action plan for implementing a fire safety management program for your employer or university. Develop an emergency plan for the building in which you work or attend classes. Develop a set of program guidelines for a mock refinery, chemical plant, or other high-hazard facility. Form a group of four persons and develop a complete, written, fire safety management program for a facility.

Responding to Hazardous Material Incidents. Andersen, Shirley A. Technical Communication 37 4 — Bird, Frank E. Practical Loss Control Leadership. Davis, Larry. Fire Engineering March : 26— Firenze, Robert. The Process of Hazard Control. Buffalo: William S. Hein, Hazardous Materials Emergency Planning Guide. Implementing NFPA National Preparedness Standard. Marcum, C. Master Index to National Fire Codes. National Fire Codes, vol. New York City Transit Authority.

Policy Instruction 8. Planer, Robert. Tompkins, Neville C. How to Write a Company Safety Manual. Boston: Standard Publishing, Underdown, G. Practical Fire Precautions. London: A. Wheaton and Company, Government Printing Office, Recognize and identify hazardous materials. Understand the three basic physical hazards of chemicals. Explain what oxidizing chemicals are and how they intensify the combustion of other materials. Describe the terms flash point and ignition point.

Be able to explain fire loading. The U. Department of Transportation labeling system 49 CFR contains requirements for the ship- ping, marking, labeling, and placarding of hazardous materials. The objec- tives of this standard are to 1 provide an immediate warning of potential danger; 2 inform emergency responders of the nature of the hazard; 3 state emergency spill or release control procedures; and 4 minimize potential injuries from chemi- cal exposure.

The standard contains a hazardous materials table listing substances by name, prescribing requirements for shipping papers, package marking, labeling, and transport vehicle placarding. Table 4. This class number appears at the bottom of each DOT label. Of particular use to safety managers in a fire loss control program is the U. TABLE 4. Determine if the accident involves a small or large spill and if day or night. Generally, a small spill is one which involves a single, small package i.

A large spill is one which involves a spill from a large package, or multiple spills from many small packages. Determine the initial isolation distance. Direct all persons to move, in a crosswind direction, away from the spill to the distance specified in meters and feet.

Next, determine the initial protective action distance. For a given dangerous goods, spill size, and whether day or night, try to determine the downwind distance—in kilometers and miles—for which protective actions should be considered. For practical purposes, the Protective Action Zone i. Initiate protective actions to the extent possible, beginning with those closest to the spill site and working away from the site in the downwind direction. When a water-reactive PIH producing material is spilled into a river or stream, the source of the toxic gas may move with the current or stretch from the spill point downstream for a substantial distance.

Identification and Control of Materials Considered Hazardous 39 The Guidebook cautions its users that it … should not be used to determine compliance with DOT hazardous materials regula- tions…. This guidebook can assist you in making decisions, but you cannot consider it to be a substitute for your own knowledge or judgment.

The distinction is important since the recommendations it contains are those most likely to apply to a majority of cases. It is not claimed that the recommendations are necessarily adequate or applica- ble in all cases. While this document was primarily designed for the use at a hazardous materials incident occurring on a highway or a railroad, it will, with certain limita- tions, be useful in handling incidents in other modes of transportation and at facilities like terminals and warehouses.

The spill is located at the center of the small circle. The larger circle represents the Initial Isolation zone around the spill. Call the emergency response telephone number listed on the shipping paper, or the appropriate response agency as soon as possible for additional information on the material, safety precautions, and mitigation procedures.

DOT requires that tank trucks carrying hazardous materials display a num- bered placard. The identification number is based on a system created by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transportation of Dangerous Goods. If the wind direction allows, consider approaching the incident from uphill.

Use binoculars, if available. Consult the numbered guide associated with the sample placard. Use that information for now. For example, a flammable Class 3 placard leads to Guide A corrosive Class 8 placard leads to Guide When specific information, such as ID number or shipping name, becomes available, the more specific guide recommended for that material must be consulted.

To use the Guidebook, identify the material by finding its four-digit number on the placard, shipping papers, or package. The material can be found in the Guidebook by number or name. Material name and number refer to a two-digit guide number. The two-digit guide number refers to a detailed instruction sheet in the Guidebook. The Guidebook also offers instruction to emergency responders in situations where the materials being transported cannot be identified by ID number or name Figure 4.

DOT requires color-coded, diamond-shaped labels on shipping containers hold- ing an amount of hazardous material, which could cause a hazardous condition in transportation see Figures 4.

A DOT label indicates the container or package holds a hazard- ous material. However, because of exemptions based on the size of inner containers placed in outer shipping containers, a package without a DOT label may still contain significant amounts of hazardous materials. We noted in Chapter 3 that an effective fire loss control program requires an elim- ination of the causes of fire by education, housekeeping, and maintenance. By iden- tifying potential hazards we can minimize what safety professionals call hazardous contacts i.

NFPA Identification of the Fire Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response, is used for laboratories, chemical processing facilities, warehouses, and storage areas. The system is designed to enable fire fighters to protect themselves from injury when fighting fires in these areas.

Obviously, it is necessary for an in-house fire brigade to recognize hazards that exist in their facility Figures 4. Gasoline, pentane Flammable Solid Any solid material, other than one classified as an Phosphorus, explosive, which is likely to cause fire by self-ignition fish meal through friction, absorption of moisture, chemical changes, or retained heat.

Can be ignited readily and burn vigorously. Flammable Solid Same definition as above, with the additional fact that Magnesium scrap, Dangerous when wet water will accelerate the reaction. Combustible Liquid Any liquid with a flash point at or above Flammable materials are flammable liquids, solids, or gases. The distinctions are drawn in Table 4.

Identification of Hazards 2. Hazard Inventory 3. Descriptive Information 4. Fire Plan 5. Training Program 6. Inspection Program 7. Scheduled Fire Drills monthly, annually, etc. Risk Evaluation 9. Materials which on very short exposure could cause death or major resid- ual injury. Materials which on short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. Materials which on intense or continued, but not chronic, exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.

Materials which on exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material. Materials which will vaporize rapidly or completely at atmospheric pres- sure and normal ambient temperature, or which are dispersed readily and which will burn readily. Liquids and solids which can be ignited under almost all ambient tempera- ture conditions. Materials which must be heated moderately or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.

Materials which must be preheated before ignition can occur. Materials that will not burn. Materials which in themselves are readily capable of detonations or of explosive decomposition or reaction at normal temperatures and pressures. Identification and Control of Materials Considered Hazardous 45 3. Materials which in themselves are capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or reaction, but require a strong initiating source, or which must be heated under confinement before initiation, or which react explo- sively with water.

Materials which readily undergo violent chemical change at elevated tem- peratures, or which react violently with water, or which may form explosive mixtures with water.

Materials which in themselves are normally stable, but which can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. Materials which in themselves are normally stable, even under fire expo- sure conditions, and which are not reactive with water. The letter W with a bar through it indicates a material may have a haz- ardous reaction with water.

Because water may cause a hazard, it is advised that water be used very cautiously until fire fighters have proper information. Employers are required to do the following: 1. Instruct employees to label all portable containers containing hazardous substances not intended for their immediate use.

The employer is required to instruct employees in how to recognize, understand, and protect themselves from hazards they will encounter in the workplace. If not, the supplier must be informed and any inadequate or incomplete information corrected.

The information must be written in English. The following minimum information is required on a Material Safety Data Sheet: 1. Specific identity of each hazardous chemical or mixture ingredient and common names. Physical and chemical characteristics of the hazardous materials such as: a.

Density of gas or vapor relative to air c. Boiling point d. Melting point e. Flash point f. Flammability range g. Vapor pressure 3. Physical-hazard data such as stability, reactivity, flammability, corrosiv- ity, explosivity.

Health-hazard data including acute and chronic health effects and target organ effects. Carcinogenicity of material. Precautions to be taken including use of personal protective equipment.

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Internet Arcade Console Living Room. Books to Borrow Open Library. Search the Wayback Machine Search icon An illustration of a magnifying glass. Sign up for free Log in. Essentials of Firefighting Item Preview.

EMBED for wordpress. Book under consideration is an important addition in the field of fire science. Book is published by Pearson Educaion in It comprises of more than pages. Spanning over 20 chapters, a lot of new information is also added in the revised edition. Every chapters has pre set objectives for the readers. Similarly, there is an addition of case studies with the learning material.

Important terminologies in each chapters are also there for the ease of readers. Real life images and figures are helpful in illustration of a concept. In addition to it, the theme of book is introductory like a manual. Essentials of Firefighting provides information with reference to international standards. Another exciting feature in the book is addition of warnings which provide critical information. Similarly, caution boxes also serve the same purpose.

Review questions at the end of chapters test the learning outcome.

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WebIFSTA | Training Resources For Firefighters. Web Fire Triangle.- The starting of a fire involves three elements - fuel, oxygen, and ignition temperatures. These elements may be compared to the three legs of a triangle (fig. 1), . WebUsing Fire Extinguishers When using fire extinguishers, employees should employ the “PASS” system of early-stage firefighting. P—Pull the pin on the extinguisher A—Aim at .