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Although it was originally marketed as simply "version 10" of the Mac OS indicated by the Roman numeral "X" , it has a completely different codebase from Mac OS 9, as well as substantial changes to its user interface. The transition was a technologically and strategically significant one.
To ease the transition for users and developers, versions through The desktop version aimed at regular users— Mac OS X Since then, several more distinct desktop and server editions of macOS have been released. Starting with Mac OS X After Apple removed Steve Jobs from management in , he left the company and attempted to create the "next big thing", with funding from Ross Perot  and himself. The result was the NeXT Computer.
As the first workstation to include a digital signal processor DSP and a high-capacity optical disc drive, NeXT hardware was advanced for its time, but was expensive relative to the rapidly commoditizing workstation market. It featured an object-oriented programming framework based on the Objective-C language.
This environment is known today in the Mac world as Cocoa. It also supported the innovative Enterprise Objects Framework database access layer and WebObjects application server development environment, among other notable features. All but abandoning the idea of an operating system, NeXT managed to maintain a business selling WebObjects and consulting services, only ever making modest profits in its last few quarters as an independent company.
However, by this point, a number of other companies — notably Apple, IBM, Microsoft, and even Sun itself — were claiming they would soon be releasing similar object-oriented operating systems and development tools of their own. Some of these efforts, such as Taligent , did not fully come to fruition; others, like Java , gained widespread adoption. Meanwhile, Apple was facing commercial difficulties of its own. The decade-old Macintosh System Software had reached the limits of its single-user, co-operative multitasking architecture, and its once-innovative user interface was looking increasingly outdated.
A massive development effort to replace it, known as Copland , was started in , but was generally perceived outside Apple to be a hopeless case due to political infighting and conflicting goals. By , Copland was nowhere near ready for release, and the project was eventually cancelled. At first, the plan was to develop a new operating system based almost entirely on an updated version of OPENSTEP, with the addition of a virtual machine subsystem — known as the Blue Box — for running "classic" Macintosh applications.
The result was known by the code name Rhapsody , slated for release in late Apple expected that developers would port their software to the considerably more powerful OPENSTEP libraries once they learned of its power and flexibility. Instead, several major developers such as Adobe told Apple that this would never occur, and that they would rather leave the platform entirely.
This "rejection" of Apple's plan was largely the result of a string of previous broken promises from Apple; after watching one "next OS" after another disappear and Apple's market share dwindle, developers were not interested in doing much work on the platform at all, let alone a re-write.
Apple's financial losses continued and the board of directors lost confidence in CEO Gil Amelio , asking him to resign. The board asked Steve Jobs to lead the company on an interim basis, essentially giving him carte blanche to make changes to return the company to profitability.
When Jobs announced at the World Wide Developer's Conference that what developers really wanted was a modern version of the Mac OS, and Apple was going to deliver it [ citation needed ] , he was met with applause. Over the next two years, a major effort was applied to porting the original Macintosh APIs to Unix libraries known as Carbon. Mac OS applications could be ported to Carbon without the need for a complete re-write, making them operate as native applications on the new operating system.
Meanwhile, applications written using the older toolkits would be supported using the "Classic" Mac OS 9 environment. During this time, the lower layers of the operating system the Mach kernel and the BSD layers on top of it  were re-packaged and released under the Apple Public Source License.
They became known as Darwin. The Darwin kernel provides a stable and flexible operating system, which takes advantage of the contributions of programmers and independent open-source projects outside Apple; however, it sees little use outside the Macintosh community. During this period, the Java programming language had increased in popularity, and an effort was started to improve Mac Java support.
Aqua was a substantial departure from the Mac OS 9 interface, which had evolved with little change from that of the original Macintosh operating system: it incorporated full color scalable graphics, anti-aliasing of text and graphics, simulated shading and highlights, transparency and shadows, and animation.
A new feature was the Dock, an application launcher which took advantage of these capabilities. Despite this, Mac OS X maintained a substantial degree of consistency with the traditional Mac OS interface and Apple's own Apple Human Interface Guidelines , with its pull-down menu at the top of the screen, familiar keyboard shortcuts, and support for a single-button mouse. The development of Aqua was delayed somewhat by the switch from OpenStep's Display PostScript engine to one developed in-house that was free of any license restrictions, known as Quartz.
Prior to its release, version After the code name "Jaguar" for version Apple registered "Lynx" and "Cougar", but these were allowed to lapse. While many critics suggested that the operating system was not ready for mainstream adoption, they recognized the importance of its initial launch as a base on which to improve. Simply releasing Mac OS X was received by the Macintosh community as a great accomplishment, for attempts to completely overhaul the Mac OS had been underway since , and delayed by countless setbacks.
Following some bug fixes, kernel panics became much less frequent. Mac OS X Apple released On January 7, , Apple announced that Mac OS X was to be the default operating system for all Macintosh products by the end of that month. In addition to providing much improved performance, it also incorporated the most extensive update yet to the user interface. Apple stated that Tiger contained more than new features.
The initial release of the Apple TV used a modified version of Tiger with a different graphical interface and fewer applications and services. On January 10, , Apple released the first Intel-based Macs along with the This operating system functioned identically on the PowerPC-based Macs and the new Intel-based machines, with the exception of the Intel release dropping support for the Classic environment.
Apple called it "the largest update of Mac OS X". The single DVD works for all supported Macs including bit machines. New features include a new look, an updated Finder, Time Machine , Spaces , Boot Camp pre-installed,  full support for bit applications including graphical applications , new features in Mail and iChat , and a number of new security features.
Rather than delivering big changes to the appearance and end user functionality like the previous releases of Mac OS X , the development of Snow Leopard was deliberately focused on "under the hood" changes, increasing the performance, efficiency, and stability of the operating system.
For most users, the most noticeable changes are these: the disk space that the operating system frees up after a clean installation compared to Mac OS X It brought developments made in Apple's iOS, such as an easily navigable display of installed applications Launchpad and a greater use of multi-touch gestures, to the Mac.
This release removed Rosetta , making it incapable of running PowerPC applications. It dropped support for bit Intel processors and requires 2GB of memory. Documents auto-save by default. It incorporates some features seen in iOS 5, which include Game Center , support for iMessage in the new Messages messaging application, and Reminders as a to-do list app separate from iCal which is renamed as Calendar, like the iOS app.
It also includes support for storing iWork documents in iCloud. Application pop-ups are now concentrated on the corner of the screen, and the Center itself is pulled from the right side of the screen. Mountain Lion also includes more Chinese features, including support for Baidu as an option for Safari search engine.
Notes is added, as an application separate from Mail, synching with its iOS counterpart   through the iCloud service. Messages, an instant messaging software application ,  replaces iChat. Mavericks requires 2GB of memory to operate. It is the first version named under Apple's then-new theme of places in California , dubbed Mavericks after the surfing location.
It featured a major overhaul of user interface, replaced skeuomorphism with flat graphic design and blurred translucency effects, following the aesthetic introduced with iOS 7. It introduced features called Continuity and Handoff, which allow for tighter integration between paired OS X and iOS devices: the user can handle phone calls or text messages on either their Mac or their iPhone, and edit the same Pages document on either their Mac or their iPad.
Apple described this release as containing "Refinements to the Mac Experience" and "Improvements to System Performance" rather than new features. Refinements include public transport built into the Maps application, GUI improvements to the Notes application, as well as adopting San Francisco as the system font. Metal API , an application enhancing software, had debuted in this operating system, being available to "all Macs since ". The update brought the Siri assistant to macOS, featuring several Mac-specific features, like searching for files.
It also allowed websites to support Apple Pay as a method of transferring payment, using either a nearby iOS device or Touch ID to authenticate. It was released publicly on September 20, It was released on September 25, In addition, numerous changes were made to standard applications including Photos, Safari, Notes, and Spotlight. It was released on September 24, Some of the key new features were Dark wallpaper in dark mode, Desktop stacks and Dynamic Desktop, which changes the desktop background image to correspond to the user's current time of day.
It was released on October 7, It primarily focuses on updates to built-in apps, such as replacing iTunes with separate Music, Podcasts, and TV apps, redesigned Reminders and Books apps, and a new Find My app.
It also features Sidecar, which allows the user to use an iPad as a second screen for their computer, or even simulate a graphics tablet with an Apple Pencil. It is the first version of macOS not to support bit applications. The Dashboard application was also removed in the update. Since macOS Universal Control allows users to use a single keyboard and mouse to move between devices. AirPlay now allows users to present and share almost anything. The Shortcuts app was also introduced to macOS, giving users access to galleries of pre-built shortcuts, designed for Macs, a service brought from iOS.
Users can now also set up shortcuts, among other things. Jump to content Navigation. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. On this Wikipedia the language links are at the top of the page across from the article title. Go to top. Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk. Read Edit View history. More Read Edit View history. History of Apple's current Mac operating system. Rhapsody Developer Release Hera Server 1. This section does not cite any sources.
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Latest version. Latest preview version. Future release. This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. September Archived from the original on Retrieved Steve Jobs. ISBN Apple Computer, Inc. Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 18 September Archived from the original on September 13, Retrieved July 17, Network World.
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WebApr 18, · Fishrrman said: First off, I'm a Canon user (not SONY). Having said that, Canon offers more than one way to upgrade firmware. One way is by using a Mac-based . WebDec 5, · As of December , the latest version of macOS is macOS Ventura, also known as macOS When Was macOS Ventura Released? macOS Ventura was .